The Jewish Role in the Bolshevik Revolution
and Russia's Early Soviet Regime
Assessing the Grim Legacy of Soviet Communism
by Mark Weber
In the night of July 16-17, 1918, a squad of Bolshevik secret police murdered Russia's
emperor, Tsar Nicholas II, along with his wife, Tsaritsa Alexandra, their
Tsarevich Alexis, and their four daughters. They were cut down
in a hail of gunfire in a
half-cellar room of the house in Ekaterinburg, a city
in the Ural mountain region, where they
were being held prisoner. The daughters
were finished off with bayonets. To prevent a cult
for the dead Tsar, the bodies
were carted away to the countryside and hastily buried in a secret grave.
Bolshevik authorities at first reported that the Romanov emperor had been shot after
discovery of a plot to liberate him. For some time the deaths of the Empress
and the children
were kept secret. Soviet historians claimed for many years that
local Bolsheviks had acted on
their own in carrying out the killings, and that
Lenin, founder of the Soviet state, had nothing
to do with the crime.
In 1990, Moscow playwright and historian
Edvard Radzinsky announced the result of
his detailed investigation into the
murders. He unearthed the reminiscences of Lenin's
bodyguard, Alexei Akimov,
who recounted how he personally delivered Lenin's execution
order to the telegraph
office. The telegram was also signed by Soviet government chief
Akimov had saved the original telegraph tape as a record of the secret order.1
Radzinsky's research confirmed what earlier evidence had already indicated.
Trotsky -- one of Lenin's closest colleagues -- had revealed years earlier
that Lenin and
Sverdlov had together made the decision to put the Tsar and his
family to death. Recalling a
conversation in 1918, Trotsky wrote:2
My next visit to Moscow
took place after the [temporary] fall of Ekaterinburg [to
anti-Communist forces]. Speaking with
Sverdlov, I asked in passing: "Oh yes, and where is the Tsar?"
he replied. "He has been shot."
"And where is the family?"
"The family along with him."
of them?," I asked, apparently with a trace of surprise.
"All of them,"
replied Sverdlov. "What about it?"
He was waiting to see my reaction. I made no reply.
"And who made the decision?," I asked.
it here. Ilyich [Lenin] believed that we shouldn't leave the Whites a
live banner to rally around,
especially under the present difficult circumstances."
I asked no further
questions and considered the matter closed.
Recent research and investigation by Radzinsky and others also corroborates the account
provided years earlier by Robert Wilton, correspondent of the London Times in Russia for
17 years. His account, The Last Days of the Romanovs - originally published in 1920,
reissued in 1993 by the Institute for Historical Review -- is based in large
part on the findings
of a detailed investigation carried out in 1919 by Nikolai
Sokolov under the authority of "White"
(anti-Communist) leader Alexander
Kolchak. Wilton's book remains one of the most
accurate and complete accounts
of the murder of Russia's imperial family.3
A solid understanding of history has long been the best guide to comprehending the
present and anticipating the future. Accordingly, people are most interested in historical
questions during times of crisis, when the future seems most uncertain. With the collapse
of Communist rule in the Soviet Union, 1989-1991, and as Russians struggle to build a new
order on the ruins of the old, historical issues have become very topical. For example,
many ask: How did the Bolsheviks, a small movement guided by the teachings of German-Jewish
social philosopher Karl Marx, succeed in taking control of Russia
imposing a cruel and despotic regime on its people?
In recent years, Jews around the world have been voicing anxious concern over the specter
of anti-Semitism in the lands of the former Soviet Union. In this new and uncertain era, we
are told, suppressed feelings of hatred and rage against Jews are once again being
expressed. According to one public opinion survey conducted in 1991, for example,
most Russians wanted all Jews to leave the country.4 But precisely why is anti-Jewish
sentiment so widespread among the peoples of the former Soviet Union? Why do so
many Russians, Ukrainians, Lithuanians and others blame "the Jews" for so much misfortune?
A Taboo Subject
Although officially Jews have never made up more than five percent of the
population,5 they played a highly disproportionate
and probably decisive role in the infant
Bolshevik regime, effectively dominating
the Soviet government during its early years.
Soviet historians, along with most
of their colleagues in the West, for decades
preferred to ignore this subject.
The facts, though, cannot be denied.
With the notable exception of Lenin (Vladimir Ulyanov), most of the leading Communists
who took control of Russia in 1917-20 were Jews. Leon Trotsky (Lev Bronstein) headed
the Red Army and, for a time, was chief of Soviet foreign affairs. Yakov Sverdlov (Solomon)
was both the Bolshevik party's executive secretary and -- as chairman of the Central
Executive Committee -- head of the Soviet government. Grigori Zinoviev (Radomyslsky)
headed the Communist International (Comintern), the central agency for spreading
revolution in foreign countries. Other prominent Jews included press commissar Karl
Radek (Sobelsohn), foreign affairs commissar Maxim Litvinov (Wallach), Lev Kamenev
(Rosenfeld) and Moisei Uritsky.6
Lenin himself was of mostly Russian and Kalmuck ancestry, but he was also one-quarter
Jewish. His maternal grandfather, Israel (Alexander) Blank, was a
Jew who was later baptized into the Russian Orthodox Church.7
A thorough-going internationalist, Lenin viewed ethnic or cultural loyalties with
He had little regard for his own countrymen. "An intelligent Russian,"
he once remarked,
"is almost always a Jew or someone with Jewish blood in
In the Communist seizure of power
in Russia, the Jewish role was probably critical.
Two weeks prior to the Bolshevik "October Revolution" of 1917, Lenin convened a top
secret meeting in St. Petersburg (Petrograd) at which the key leaders of the Bolshevik party's
Central Committee made the fateful decision to seize power in a violent takeover.
Of the twelve persons who took part in this decisive gathering, there were four Russians
(including Lenin), one Georgian (Stalin), one Pole (Dzerzhinsky), and six Jews.9
To direct the takeover, a seven-man "Political Bureau" was chosen.
It consisted of two
Russians (Lenin and Bubnov), one Georgian (Stalin), and
four Jews (Trotsky, Sokolnikov,
Zinoviev, and Kamenev).10 Meanwhile,
the Petersburg (Petrograd) Soviet -- whose chairman
was Trotsky -- established
an 18-member "Military Revolutionary Committee" to actually
the seizure of power. It included eight (or nine) Russians, one Ukrainian, one Pole,
one Caucasian, and six Jews.11 Finally, to supervise the organization of the uprising, the
Bolshevik Central Committee established a five-man "Revolutionary Military Center" as the
Party's operations command. It consisted of one Russian (Bubnov), one Georgian
(Stalin), one Pole (Dzerzhinsky), and two Jews (Sverdlov and Uritsky).12
Contemporary Voices of Warning
Well-informed observers, both inside and outside of Russia, took note at
the time of
the crucial Jewish role in Bolshevism. Winston Churchill, for one,
warned in an article
published in the February 8, 1920, issue of the London Illustrated
Sunday Herald that
Bolshevism is a "worldwide conspiracy for the overthrow
of civilization and for the
reconstitution of society on the basis of arrested
development, of envious malevolence,
and impossible equality." The eminent
British political leader and historian went on to write:13
There is no need to exaggerate the part played in the creation of
Bolshevism and in
the actual bringing about of the Russian Revolution by these international
and for the
most part atheistical Jews. It is certainly a very great one; it probably outweighs
With the notable exception of Lenin, the majority of the leading figures are Jews.
Moreover, the principal inspiration and driving power comes from the Jewish leaders.
Thus Tchitcherin, a pure Russian, is eclipsed by his nominal subordinate, Litvinoff,
influence of Russians like Bukharin or Lunacharski cannot be compared with
the power of Trotsky,
or of Zinovieff, the Dictator of the Red Citadel (Petrograd), or
of Krassin or Radek -- all
Jews. In the Soviet institutions the predominance of Jews
is even more astonishing. And the
prominent, if not indeed the principal, part in the
system of terrorism applied by the Extraordinary
Commissions for Combatting
Counter-Revolution [the Cheka] has been taken by Jews, and in some
cases by Jewesses.
Needless to say, the most
intense passions of revenge
have been excited in the breasts of the Russian people.
David R. Francis, United States ambassador in Russia,
warned in a January 1918
dispatch to Washington: "The Bolshevik leaders
here, most of whom are Jews and
90 percent of whom are returned exiles, care little
for Russia or any other country
but are internationalists and they are trying
to start a worldwide social revolution."14
The Netherlands' ambassador in Russia, Oudendyke, made much the same point a few
months later: "Unless Bolshevism is nipped in the bud immediately, it is bound to spread
in one form or another over Europe and the whole world as it is organized and
Jews who have no nationality, and whose one object is to destroy for
their own ends
the existing order of things."15
"The Bolshevik Revolution," declared
a leading American Jewish community paper in
1920, "was largely the product
of Jewish thinking, Jewish discontent, Jewish effort to
As an expression of its radically anti-nationalist
character, the fledgling Soviet government
issued a decree a few months after
taking power that made anti-Semitism a crime in
Russia. The new Communist regime
thus became the first in the world to severely punish
all expressions of anti-Jewish
sentiment.17 Soviet officials apparently regarded such
indispensable. Based on careful observation during a lengthy stay in Russia,
scholar Frank Golder reported in 1925 that "because so many of the
leaders are Jews anti-Semitism is gaining [in Russia], particularly in the army [and]
among the old and new intelligentsia who are being crowded for positions by the sons of Israel."18
Summing up the situation at that time, Israeli historian Louis Rapoport
Immediately after the [Bolshevik] Revolution, many Jews were euphoric over their
representation in the new government. Lenin's first Politburo was dominated
by men of Jewish
Under Lenin, Jews became involved in all aspects of the Revolution, including
dirtiest work. Despite the Communists' vows to eradicate anti-Semitism, it spread
rapidly after the Revolution -- partly because of the prominence of so many Jews in
Soviet administration, as well as in the traumatic, inhuman Sovietization drives
Historian Salo Baron has noted that an immensely disproportionate
number of Jews joined the
new Bolshevik secret police, the Cheka And many
of those who fell afoul of the Cheka would be
shot by Jewish investigators.
The collective leadership that emerged in Lenin's
dying days was headed by the
Jew Zinoviev, a loquacious, mean-spirited, curly-haired Adonis
whose vanity knew no bounds.
who had the misfortune to fall into the hands of the Cheka," wrote Jewish
Leonard Schapiro, "stood a very good chance of finding himself confronted
and possibly shot by, a Jewish investigator."20 In Ukraine, "Jews made up nearly
80 percent of the rank-and-file Cheka agents," reports W. Bruce Lincoln, an American
professor of Russian history.21 (Beginning as the Cheka, or Vecheka) the Soviet
secret police was later known as the GPU, OGPU, NKVD, MVD and KGB.)
In light of all this, it should not be surprising that Yakov M. Yurovksy,
the leader of the
Bolshevik squad that carried out the murder of the Tsar and
his family, was
Jewish, as was Sverdlov, the Soviet chief who co-signed Lenin's
Shafarevich, a Russian mathematician of world stature, has sharply criticized the Jewish
role in bringing down the Romanov monarchy and establishing Communist rule in his
country. Shafarevich was a leading dissident during the final decades of Soviet rule. A
prominent human rights activist, he was a founding member of the Committee on the
Defense of Human Rights in the USSR.
In Russophobia, a book written ten years before the collapse of Communist rule, he
noted that Jews were "amazingly" numerous among the personnel of the Bolshevik
secret police. The characteristic Jewishness of the Bolshevik executioners,
went on, is most conspicuous in the execution of Nicholas II:23
This ritual action symbolized the end of centuries of Russian history,
so that it can
be compared only to the execution of Charles I in England or Louis XVI in France.
It would seem that representatives of an insignificant ethnic minority should keep as
as possible from this painful action, which would reverberate in all history. Yet
do we meet? The execution was personally overseen by Yakov Yurovsky
who shot the Tsar; the president
of the local Soviet was Beloborodov (Vaisbart);
the person responsible for the general administration
in Ekaterinburg was Shaya
Goloshchekin. To round out the picture, on the wall of the room where
took place was a distich from a poem by Heine (written in German)
about King Balthazar, who offended Jehovah and was killed for the offense.
In his 1920 book, British veteran journalist Rober
t Wilton offered a similarly harsh assessment:24
The whole record of Bolshevism in Russia is indelibly impressed
with the stamp of
alien invasion. The murder of the Tsar, deliberately planned by the Jew Sverdlov
(who came to Russia as a paid agent of Germany) and carried out by the Jews
Syromolotov, Safarov, Voikov and Yurovsky, is the act not of the
Russian people, but of this
struggle for power that followed Lenin's death in 1924, Stalin emerged victorious
over his rivals, eventually succeeding in putting to death nearly every one of the most
prominent early Bolsheviks leaders - including Trotsky, Zinoviev, Radek, and Kamenev.
With the passage of time, and particularly after 1928, the Jewish role in the top
leadership of the Soviet state and its Communist party diminished markedly.
Put To Death Without Trial
For a few months after taking power, Bolshevik leaders considered bringing "Nicholas
Romanov" before a "Revolutionary Tribunal" that would publicize his "crimes
the people" before sentencing him to death. Historical precedent
existed for this. Two
European monarchs had lost their lives as a consequence
of revolutionary upheaval:
England's Charles I was beheaded in 1649, and France's
Louis XVI was guillotined in 1793.
these cases, the king was put to death after a lengthy public trial, during which he
was allowed to present arguments in his defense. Nicholas II, though, was neither charged
nor tried. He was secretly put to death - along with his family and staff -- in the dead of
night, in an act that resembled more a gangster-style massacre than a formal execution.
Why did Lenin and Sverdlov abandon plans for a show trial of the former
Tsar? In Wilton's
view, Nicholas and his family were murdered because the Bolshevik
rulers knew quite well
that they lacked genuine popular support, and rightly
feared that the Russian people
would never approve killing the Tsar, regardless
of pretexts and legalistic formalities.
For his part, Trotsky defended the massacre as a
useful and even necesssary
measure. He wrote:25
The decision [to kill the imperial family] was not only expedient but necessary. The
of this punishment showed everyone that we would continue to fight on
at nothing. The execution of the Tsar's family was needed not
only in order to frighten, horrify,
and instill a sense of hopelessness in the enemy but
also to shake up our own ranks, to show
that there was no turning back,
that ahead lay either total victory or total doom. This Lenin
In the years leading up to the 1917
revolution, Jews were disproportionately represented
in all of Russia's subversive
leftist parties.26 Jewish hatred of the Tsarist regime had a
in objective conditions. Of the leading European powers of the day, imperial
was the most institutionally conservative and anti-Jewish. For example, Jews were
normally not permitted to reside outside a large area in the
west of the Empire
known as the "Pale of Settlement."27
However understandable, and perhaps even defensible, Jewish hostility toward the imperial
regime may have been, the remarkable Jewish role in the vastly more despotic Soviet
regime is less easy to justify. In a recently published book about the Jews in Russia during
the 20th century, Russian-born Jewish writer Sonya Margolina goes so far as to call the
Jewish role in supporting the Bolshevik regime the "historic sin of the Jews."28
points, for example, to the prominent role of Jews as commandants of Soviet
concentration and labor camps, and the role of Jewish Communists
in the systematic
destruction of Russian churches. Moreover, she goes on, "The
Jews of the entire
world supported Soviet power, and remained silent in the
face of any criticism
from the opposition." In light of this record, Margolina
offers a grim prediction:
The exaggeratedly enthusiastic participation of the Jewish Bolsheviks in the
and destruction of Russia is a sin that will be avenged Soviet power
will be equated with Jewish
power, and the furious hatred against the Bolsheviks will
become hatred against Jews.
If the past is any indication, it is unlikely that
many Russians will seek the revenge that
Margolina prophecies. Anyway, to blame
"the Jews" for the horrors of Communism seems
no more justifiable than
to blame "white people" for Negro slavery,
or "the Germans"
for the Second World War or "the Holocaust."
Words of Grim Portent
his family are only the best known of countless victims of a regime that
proclaimed its ruthless purpose. A few weeks after the
the newspaper of the fledgling Red Army declared:29
Without mercy, without sparing, we will kill our enemies by the scores of hundreds,
let them be thousands, let them drown themselves in their own blood. For the blood
of Lenin and Uritskii let there be floods of blood of the bourgeoisie -- more blood, as
much as possible.
Zinoviev, speaking at a meeting of Communists in September 1918, effectively
a death sentence on ten million human beings: "We must carry along with
90 million out of the 100 million of Soviet Russia's inhabitants. As for
rest, we have nothing to say to them. They must be annihilated."30
'The Twenty Million'
As it turned out, the Soviet toll in human lives and suffering proved to be much higher
than Zinoviev's murderous rhetoric suggested. Rarely, if ever, has a regime taken the
lives of so many of its own people.31
Citing newly-available Soviet KGB documents, historian Dmitri Volkogonov,
head of a special
Russian parliamentary commission, recently concluded that "from
1929 to 1952, 21.5
million [Soviet] people were repressed. Of these a third were
shot, the rest sentenced to
imprisonment, where many also died."32
Olga Shatunovskaya, a member of the Soviet
Commission of Party Control, and head
of a special commission during the 1960s
appointed by premier Khrushchev, has similarly
concluded: "From January
1, 1935 to June 22, 1941, 19,840,000 enemies of the people
were arrested. Of
these, seven million were shot in prison, and a majority of the others
camp." These figures were also found in the papers of Politburo member Anastas Mikoyan.33
Robert Conquest, the distinguished specialist of Soviet history, recently
summed up the grim record of Soviet "repression" of it own people:34
It is hard to avoid the
conclusion that the post-1934 death toll was well over ten
million. To this should be added
the victims of the 1930-1933 famine, the kulak
deportations, and other anti-peasant campaigns,
amounting to another ten million
plus. The total is thus in the range of what the Russians now
refer to as 'The Twenty Million'."
A few other scholars have given significantly higher estimates.35
The Tsarist Era in Retrospect
With the dramatic collapse of Soviet rule, many Russians are taking a new and more
respectful look at their country's pre-Communist history, including the era of the last
Romanov emperor. While the Soviets -- along with many in the West -- have stereotypically
portrayed this era as little more than an age of arbitrary despotism, cruel suppression
and mass poverty, the reality is rather different. While it is true that the power of the
Tsar was absolute, that only a small minority had any significant political voice,
the mass of the empire's citizens were peasants, it is worth noting
during the reign of Nicholas II had freedom of press, religion,
assembly and association,
protection of private property, and free labor unions.
of the regime, such as Lenin, were treated with remarkable leniency.36
During the decades prior to the outbreak
of the First World War, the Russian economy
was booming. In fact, between 1890
and 1913, it was the fastest growing in the world.
New rail lines were opened
at an annual rate double that of the Soviet years. Between
1900 and 1913, iron
production increased by 58 percent, while coal production more than
Exported Russian grain fed all of Europe. Finally, the last
decades of Tsarist
Russia witnessed a magnificent flowering of cultural life.
Everything changed with the First World War, a catastrophe not only for Russia, but
for the entire West.
In spite of
(or perhaps because of) the relentless official campaign during the entire
era to stamp out every uncritical memory of the Romanovs and imperial Russia,
a virtual cult of popular veneration for Nicholas II has been sweeping Russia in recent years.
People have been eagerly paying the equivalent of several hours' wages
portraits of Nicholas from street vendors in Moscow, St. Petersburg
and other Russian
cities. His portrait now hangs in countless Russian homes and
apartments. In late 1990,
all 200,000 copies of a first printing of a 30-page
pamphlet on the Romanovs quickly
sold out. Said one street vendor: "I personally
sold four thousand copies in no time at all.
It's like a nuclear explosion. People
really want to know about their Tsar and his family."
Grass roots pro-Tsarist
and monarchist organizations have sprung up in many cities.
A public opinion poll conducted in 1990 found that three out of four Soviet citizens
surveyed regard the killing of the Tsar and his family as a despicable crime.38
Russian Orthodox believers regard Nicholas as a martyr. The independent
Church Abroad" canonized the imperial family in 1981, and
the Moscow-based Russian
Orthodox Church has been under popular pressure to take
the same step, in spite of its
long-standing reluctance to touch this official
taboo. The Russian Orthodox Archbishop
of Ekaterinburg announced plans in 1990
to build a grand church at the site of the killings.
"The people loved
Emperor Nicholas," he said. "His memory lives with the people, not as
saint but as someone executed without court verdict, unjustly, as a sufferer for his faith
and for orthodoxy."39
On the 75th anniversary of the massacre (in July 1993), Russians recalled the life, death
and legacy of their last Emperor. In Ekaterinburg, where a large white cross festooned with
flowers now marks the spot where the family was killed, mourners
as hymns were sung and prayers were said for the victims.40
Reflecting both popular sentiment and new social-political realities, the white,
red horizontal tricolor flag of Tsarist Russia was officially adopted
in 1991, replacing
the red Soviet banner. And in 1993, the imperial two-headed
eagle was restored as the
nation's official emblem, replacing the Soviet hammer
and sickle. Cities that had been
re-named to honor Communist figures -- such
as Leningrad, Kuibyshev, Frunze, Kalinin,
and Gorky -- have re-acquired their
Tsarist-era names. Ekaterinburg, which had been
named Sverdlovsk by the Soviets
in 1924 in honor of the Soviet-Jewish chief, in
September 1991 restored its pre-Communist
name, which honors Empress Catherine I.
In view of the millions
that would be put to death by the Soviet rulers in the years to
follow, the murder
of the Romanov family might not seem of extraordinary importance.
And yet, the
event has deep symbolic meaning. In the apt words of Harvard University
The manner in which the massacre was prepared and carried out, at first denied
then justified, has something uniquely odious about it, something that radically
it from previous acts of regicide and brands it as a prelude to twentieth-century
Another historian, Ivor Benson, characterized the
killing of the Romanov family as
symbolic of the tragic fate of Russia and, indeed,
of the entire West, in this century of
unprecedented agony and conflict.
The murder of the Tsar and his family is
all the more deplorable because, whatever his
failings as a monarch, Nicholas
II was, by all accounts, a personally decent, generous,
humane and honorable
The Massacre's Place in
The mass slaughter and chaos of the
First World War, and the revolutionary upheavals
that swept Europe in 1917-1918,
brought an end not only to the ancient Romanov
dynasty in Russia, but to an entire
continental social order. Swept away as well was the
Hohenzollern dynasty in
Germany, with its stable constitutional monarchy, and the ancient
of Austria-Hungary with its multinational central European empire.
states shared not only the same Christian and Western cultural foundations,
most of the continent's reigning monarchs were related by blood. England's King
George was, through his mother, a first cousin of Tsar Nicholas, and, through his father,
a first cousin of Empress Alexandra. Germany's Kaiser Wilhelm was a first
cousin of the German-born Alexandra, and a distant cousin of Nicholas.
More than was the case with the monarchies of western Europe, Russia's Tsar personally
symbolized his land and nation. Thus, the murder of the last emperor of a dynasty
ruled Russia for three centuries not only symbolically presaged the
slaughter that would claim so many Russian lives in the decades
that followed, but
was symbolic of the Communist effort to kill the soul and
spirit of Russia itself.
- Edvard Radzinksy, The Last Tsar (New York: Doubleday, 1992), pp. 327, 344-346.;
Bill Keller, "Cult of the Last Czar," The New York Times, Nov. 21, 1990.
an April 1935 entry in "Trotsky's Diary in Exile." Quoted in: Richard Pipes, The Russian Revolution (New
York: Knopf, 1990), pp. 770, 787.; Robert K. Massie, Nicholas and Alexandra (New York: 1976), pp. 496-497.; E. Radzinksy,
The Last Tsar (New York: Doubleday, 1992), pp. 325-326.; Ronald W. Clark, Lenin (New York: 1988), pp. 349-350.
- On Wilton and his career in Russia, see: Phillip Knightley, The First Casualty (Harcourt
Brace Jovanovich, 1976), pp. 141-142, 144-146, 151-152, 159, 162, 169, and, Anthony Summers and Tom Mangold, The File
on the Tsar (New York: Harper and Row, 1976), pp. 102-104, 176.
- AP dispatch from Moscow,
Toronto Star, Sept. 26, 1991, p. A2.; Similarly, a 1992 survey found that one-fourth of people in the republics
of Belarus (White Russia) and Uzbekistan favored deporting all Jews to a special Jewish region in Russian Siberia. "Survey
Finds Anti-Semitism on Rise in Ex-Soviet Lands," Los Angeles Times, June 12, 1992, p. A4.
- At the turn of the century, Jews made up 4.2 percent of the population of the Russian Empire. Richard Pipes, The
Russian Revolution (New York: 1990), p. 55 (fn.).
By comparison, in the United States today, Jews make up less
than three percent of the total population (according to the most authoritative estimates).
individual entries in: H. Shukman, ed., The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the Russian Revolution (Oxford: 1988), and
in: G. Wigoder, ed., Dictionary of Jewish Biography (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991).
The prominent Jewish
role in Russia's pre-1914 revolutionary underground, and in the early Soviet regime, is likewise confirmed in: Stanley Rothman
and S. Robert Lichter, Roots of Radicalism (New York: Oxford, 1982), pp. 92-94.
In 1918, the Bolshevik Party's
Central Committee had 15 members. German scholar Herman Fehst -- citing published Soviet records -- reported in his useful
1934 study that of six of these 15 were Jews. Herman Fehst, Bolschewismus und Judentum: Das jüdische Element in der
Führerschaft des Bolschewismus (Berlin: 1934), pp. 68-72.; Robert Wilton, though, reported that in 1918 the Central
Committee of the Bolshevik party had twelve members, of whom nine were of Jewish origin and three were of Russian ancestry.
R. Wilton, The Last Days of the Romanovs (IHR, 1993), p. 185.
- After years of official
suppression, this fact was acknowledged in 1991 in the Moscow weekly Ogonyok. See: Jewish Chronicle (London),
July 16, 1991.; See also: Letter by L. Horwitz in The New York Times, Aug. 5, 1992, which cites information from
the Russian journal "Native Land Archives."; "Lenin's Lineage?"'Jewish,' Claims Moscow News," Forward
(New York City), Feb. 28, 1992, pp. 1, 3.; M. Checinski, Jerusalem Post (weekly international edition), Jan. 26,
1991, p. 9.
- Richard Pipes, The Russian Revolution (New York: Knopf, 1990), p. 352.
- Harrison E. Salisbury, Black Night, White Snow: Russia's Revolutions, 1905-1917 (Doubleday,
1978), p. 475.; William H. Chamberlin, The Russian Revolution (Princeton Univ. Press, 1987), vol. 1, pp. 291-292.;
Herman Fehst, Bolschewismus und Judentum: Das jüdische Element in der Führerschaft des Bolschewismus (Berlin:
1934), pp. 42-43.; P. N. Pospelov, ed., Vladimir Ilyich Lenin: A Biography (Moscow: Progress, 1966), pp. 318-319.
This meeting was held on October 10 (old style, Julian calendar), and on October 23 (new style). The six Jews who took
part were: Uritsky, Trotsky, Kamenev, Zinoviev, Sverdlov and Soklonikov.
The Bolsheviks seized power in Petersburg
on October 25 (old style) -- hence the reference to the "Great October Revolution" -- which is November 7 (new
- William H. Chamberlin, The Russian Revolution (1987), vol. 1, p. 292.; H.
E. Salisbury, Black Night, White Snow: Russia's Revolutions, 1905-1917 (1978), p. 475.
H. Chamberlin, The Russian Revolution, vol. 1, pp. 274, 299, 302, 306.; Alan Moorehead, The Russian Revolution
(New York: 1965), pp. 235, 238, 242, 243, 245.; H. Fehst, Bolschewismus und Judentum (Berlin: 1934), pp. 44, 45.
- H. E. Salisbury, Black Night, White Snow: Russia's Revolutions, 1905-1917 (1978),
p. 479-480.; Dmitri Volkogonov, Stalin: Triumph and Tragedy (New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1991), pp. 27-28, 32.; P.
N. Pospelov, ed., Vladimir Ilyich Lenin: A Biography (Moscow: Progress, 1966), pp. 319-320.
- "Zionism versus Bolshevism: A struggle for the soul of the Jewish people," Illustrated Sunday Herald
(London), February 8, 1920. Facsimile reprint in: William Grimstad, The Six Million Reconsidered (1979), p. 124.
(At the time this essay was published, Churchill was serving as minister of war and air.)
R. Francis, Russia from the American Embassy (New York: 1921), p. 214.
Relations of the United States -- 1918 -- Russia, Vol. 1 (Washington, DC: 1931), pp. 678-679.
Hebrew (New York), Sept. 1920. Quoted in: Nathan Glazer and Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Beyond the Melting Pot
(Cambridge, Mass.: 1963), p. 268.
- C. Jacobson, "Jews in the USSR" in: American
Review on the Soviet Union, August 1945, p. 52.; Avtandil Rukhadze, Jews in the USSR: Figures, Facts, Comment
(Moscow: Novosti, 1978), pp. 10-11.
- T. Emmons and B. M. Patenaude, eds., War, Revolution
and Peace in Russia: The Passages of Frank Golder, 1913-1927 (Stanford: Hoover Institution, 1992), pp. 320, 139, 317.
- Louis Rapoport, Stalin's War Against the Jews (New York: Free Press, 1990), pp. 30,
31, 37. See also pp. 43, 44, 45, 49, 50.
- Quoted in: Salo Baron, The Russian Jews Under
Tsars and Soviets (New York: 1976), pp. 170, 392 (n. 4).
- The Atlantic, Sept.
1991, p. 14.;
In 1919, three-quarters of the Cheka staff in Kiev were Jews, who were careful to spare fellow Jews.
By order, the Cheka took few Jewish hostages. R. Pipes, The Russian Revolution (1990), p. 824.; Israeli historian
Louis Rapoport also confirms the dominant role played by Jews in the Soviet secret police throughout the 1920s and 1930s.
L. Rapoport, Stalin's War Against the Jews (New York: 1990), pp. 30-31, 43-45, 49-50.
Radzinsky, The Last Tsar (1992), pp. 244, 303-304.; Bill Keller, "Cult of the Last Czar," The New York
Times, Nov. 21, 1990.; See also: W. H. Chamberlin, The Russian Revolution, vol. 2, p. 90.
- Quoted in: The New Republic, Feb. 5, 1990, pp. 30 ff.; Because of the alleged anti-Semitism of Russophobia,
in July 1992 Shafarevich was asked by the National Academy of Sciences (Washington, DC) to resign as an associate member
of that prestigious body.
- R. Wilton, The Last Days of the Romanovs (1993), p. 148.
- Richard Pipes, The Russian Revolution (1990), p. 787.; Robert K. Massie, Nicholas
and Alexandra (New York: 1976), pp. 496-497.
- An article in a 1907 issue of the respected
American journal National Geographic reported on the revolutionary situation brewing in Russia in the years before
the First World War: " The revolutionary leaders nearly all belong to the Jewish race, and the most effective revolutionary
agency is the Jewish Bund " W. E. Curtis, "The Revolution in Russia," The National Geographic Magazine,
May 1907, pp. 313-314.
Piotr Stolypin, probably imperial Russia's greatest statesman, was murdered in 1911 by a Jewish
assassin. In 1907, Jews made up about ten percent of Bolshevik party membership. In the Menshevik party, another faction
of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party, the Jewish proportion was twice as high. R. Pipes, The Russian Revolution
(1990), p. 365.; See also: R. Wilton, The Last Days of the Romanovs (1993), pp. 185-186.
Gilbert, Atlas of Jewish History (1977), pp. 71, 74.; In spite of the restrictive "Pale" policy, in 1897
about 315,000 Jews were living outside the Pale, most of them illegally. In 1900 more than 20,000 were living in the capital
of St. Petersburg, and another 9,000 in Moscow.
- Sonja Margolina, Das Ende der Lügen:
Russland und die Juden im 20. Jahrhundert (Berlin: 1992). Quoted in: "Ein ganz heisses Eisen angefasst," Deutsche
National-Zeitung (Munich), July 21, 1992, p. 12.
- Krasnaia Gazetta ("Red
Gazette"), September 1, 1918. Quoted in: Richard Pipes, The Russian Revolution (1990), pp. 820, 912 (n. 88).
- Richard Pipes, The Russian Revolution (New York: 1990), p. 820.
- Contrary to what a number of western historians have for years suggested, Soviet terror and the Gulag camp system
did not begin with Stalin. At the end of 1920, Soviet Russia already had 84 concentration camps with approximately 50,000
prisoners. By October 1923 the number had increased to 315 camps with 70,000 inmates. R. Pipes, The Russian Revolution
(1990), p. 836.
- Cited by historian Robert Conquest in a review/ article in The New York
Review of Books, Sept. 23, 1993, p. 27.
- The New York Review of Books, Sept. 23,
1993, p. 27.
- Review/article by Robert Conquest in The New York Review of Books, Sept.
23, 1993, p. 27.; In the "Great Terror" years of 1937-1938 alone, Conquest has calculated, approximately one million
were shot by the Soviet secret police, and another two million perished in Soviet camps. R. Conquest, The Great Terror
(New York: Oxford, 1990), pp. 485-486.;
Conquest has estimated that 13.5 to 14 million people perished in the collectivization
("dekulakization") campaign and forced famine of 1929-1933. R. Conquest, The Harvest of Sorrow (New York:
Oxford, 1986), pp. 301-307.
- Russian professor Igor Bestuzhev-Lada, writing in a 1988 issue
of the Moscow weekly Nedelya, suggested that during the Stalin era alone (1935-1953), as many as 50 million people
were killed, condemned to camps from which they never emerged, or lost their lives as a direct result of the brutal "dekulakization"
campaign against the peasantry. "Soviets admit Stalin killed 50 million," The Sunday Times, London, April
R. J. Rummel, a professor of political science at the University of Hawaii, has recently calculated that
61.9 million people were systematically killed by the Soviet Communist regime from 1917 to 1987. R. J. Rummel, Lethal
Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917 (Transaction, 1990).
- Because of his
revolutionary activities, Lenin was sentenced in 1897 to three years exile in Siberia. During this period of "punishment,"
he got married, wrote some 30 works, made extensive use of a well-stocked local library, subscribed to numerous foreign
periodicals, kept up a voluminous correspondence with supporters across Europe, and enjoyed numerous sport hunting and ice
skating excursions, while all the time receiving a state stipend. See: Ronald W. Clark, Lenin (New York: 1988),
pp. 42-57.; P. N. Pospelov, ed., Vladimir Ilyich Lenin: A Biography (Moscow: Progress, 1966), pp. 55-75.
- R. Pipes, The Russian Revolution (1990), pp. 187-188.;
- The Nation,
June 24, 1991, p. 838.
- Bill Keller, "Cult of the Last Czar," The New York Times,
Nov. 21, 1990.
- "Nostalgic for Nicholas, Russians Honor Their Last Czar," Los
Angeles Times, July 18, 1993.; "Ceremony marks Russian czar's death," Orange County Register, July
- R. Pipes, The Russian Revolution (1990), p. 787.
From The Journal of Historical Review, Jan.-Feb. 1994 (Vol. 14, No. 1), pages 4-22.