by Edward Bernays
American business community was also very impressed with the propaganda effort. They had a problem at that time. The country
was becoming formally more democratic. A lot more people were able to vote and that sort of thing. The country was becoming
wealthier and more people could participate and a lot of new immigrants were coming in, and so on.
So what do you do? It's going to be harder to run things as a private club.
Therefore, obviously, you have to control what people think. There had been public relation specialists but there was never
a public relations industry. There was a guy hired to make Rockefeller's image look prettier and that sort of thing. But
this huge public relations industry, which is a U.S. invention and a monstrous industry, came out of the first World War.
The leading figures were people in the Creel Commission. In fact, the main one, Edward Bernays, comes right out of the Creel
Commission. He has a book that came out right afterwards called Propaganda. The term "propaganda," incidentally,
did not have negative connotations in those days. It was during the second World War that the term became taboo because
it was connected with Germany, and all those bad things. But in this period, the term propaganda just meant information
or something like that. So he wrote a book called Propaganda around 1925, and it starts off by saying he is applying the
lessons of the first World War. The propaganda system of the first World War and this commission that he was part of showed,
he says, it is possible to "regiment the public mind every bit as much as an army regiments their bodies." These
new techniques of regimentation of minds, he said, had to be used by the intelligent minorities in order to make sure that
the slobs stay on the right course. We can do it now because we have these new techniques.
This is the main manual of the public relations industry. Bernays is kind
of the guru. He was an authentic Roosevelt/Kennedy liberal. He also engineered the public relations effort behind the U.S.-backed
coup which overthrew the democratic government of Guatemala.
His major coup, the one that really propelled him into fame in the late 1920s, was getting
women to smoke. Women didn't smoke in those days and he ran huge campaigns for Chesterfield. You know all the techniques—models
and movie stars with cigarettes coming out of their mouths and that kind of thing. He got enormous praise for that. So he
became a leading figure of the industry, and his book was the real manual.
THE conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in
democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the
true ruling power of our country.
We are governed, our
minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of. This is a logical result
of the way in which our democratic society is organized. Vast numbers of human beings must cooperate in this manner if
they are to live together as a smoothly functioning society.
Our invisible governors are, in many cases, unaware of the identity of their fellow members in the inner cabinet.
They govern us by their qualities of natural leadership, their ability to supply
needed ideas and by their key position in the social structure. Whatever attitude one chooses to take toward this condition,
it remains a fact that in almost every act of our daily lives, whether in the sphere of politics or business, in our social
conduct or our ethical thinking, we are dominated by the relatively small number of persons—a trifling fraction of
our hundred and twenty million—who understand the mental processes and social patterns of the masses. It is they who
pull the wires which control the public mind, who harness old social forces and contrive new ways to bind and guide the
It is not usually realized how necessary these invisible
governors are to the orderly functioning of our group life. In theory, every citizen may vote for whom he pleases. Our
Constitution does not envisage political parties as part of the mechanism of government, and its framers seem not to have
pictured to themselves the existence in our national politics of anything like the modern political machine. But the American
voters soon found that without organization and direction their individual votes, cast, perhaps, for dozens or hundreds
of candidates, would produce nothing but confusion. Invisible government, in the shape of rudimentary political parties,
arose almost overnight. Ever since then we have agreed, for the sake of simplicity and practicality, that party machines
should narrow down the field of choice to two candidates, or at most three or four.
In theory, every citizen makes up his mind on public questions and matters of private conduct. In practice, if all men had
to study for themselves the abstruse economic, political, and ethical data involved in every question, they would find it
impossible to come to a conclusion about anything. We have voluntarily agreed to let an invisible government sift the data
and high-spot the outstanding issues so that our field of choice shall be narrowed to practical proportions. From our leaders
and the media they use to reach the public, we accept the evidence and the demarcation of issues bearing upon public questions;
from some ethical teacher, be it a minister, a favorite essayist, or merely prevailing opinion, we accept a standardized
code of social conduct to which we conform most of the time.
In theory, everybody buys the best and cheapest commodities offered him on the market. In practice, if every one went around
pricing, and chemically testing before purchasing, the dozens of soaps or fabrics or brands of bread which are for sale,
economic life would become hopelessly jammed. To avoid such confusion, society consents to have its choice narrowed to ideas
and objects brought to its attention through propaganda of all kinds. There is consequently a vast and continuous effort
going on to capture our minds in the interest of some policy or commodity or idea.
It might be better to have, instead of propaganda and special pleading, committees of wise men who would choose our rulers,
dictate our conduct, private and public, and decide upon the best types of clothes for us to wear and the best kinds of
food for us to eat. But we have chosen the opposite method, that of open competition. We must find a way to make free competition
function with reasonable smoothness. To achieve this society has consented to permit free competition to be organized by
leadership and propaganda.
Some of the phenomena of this
process are criticized—the manipulation of news, the inflation of personality, and the general ballyhoo by which politicians
and commercial products and social ideas are brought to the consciousness of the masses. The instruments by which public
opinion is organized and focused may be misused. But such organization and focusing are necessary to orderly life.
As civilization has become more complex, and as the need for invisible government
has been increas ingly demonstrated, the technical means have been invented and developed by which opinion may be regimented.
With the printing press and the newspaper, the railroad,
the telephone, telegraph, radio and airplanes, ideas can be spread rapidly and even instantaneously over the whole of America.
H. G. Wells senses the vast potentialities of these inventions
when he writes in the New York Times:
"Modern means of communication—the
power afforded by print, telephone, wireless and so forth, of rapidly putting through directive strategic or technical conceptions
to a great number of cooperating centers, of getting quick replies and effective discussion—have opened up a new
world of political processes. Ideas and phrases can now be given an effectiveness greater than the effectiveness of any
personality and stronger than any sectional interest. The common design can be documented and sustained against perversion
and betrayal. It can be elaborated and developed steadily and widely without personal, local and sectional misunderstanding."
What Mr. Wells says of
political processes is equally true of commercial and social processes and all manifestations of mass activity. The groupings
and affiliations of society to-day are no longer subject to "local and sectional" limitations. When the Constitution
was adopted, the unit of organization was the village community, which produced the greater part of its own necessary commodities
and generated its group ideas and opinions by personal contact and discussion directly among its citizens. But to-day,
because ideas can be instantaneously transmitted to any distance and to any number of people, this geographical integration
has been supplemented by many other kinds of grouping, so that persons having the same ideas and interests may be associated
and regimented for common action even though they live thousands of miles apart.
It is extremely difficult to realize how many and diverse are these cleavages in our society. They may be social, political,
economic, racial, religious or ethical, with hundreds of subdivisions of each. In the World Almanac, for example, the following
groups are listed under the A's:
The League to Abolish Capital Punishment; Association
to Abolish War; American Institute of Accountants; Actors' Equity Association; Actuarial Association of America; International
Advertising Association; National Aeronautic Association; Albany Institute of History and Art; Amen Corner; American Academy
in Rome; American Antiquarian Society; League for American Citizenship; American Federation of Labor; Amorc (Rosicrucian
Order); Andiron Club;
American-Irish Historical Association; Anti-Cigarette League; Anti-Profanity
League; Archeological Association of America; National Archery Association;
Arion Singing Society;
American Astronomical Association; Ayrshire Breeders' Association; Aztec Club of 1847. There are many more under the "A"
section of this very limited list.
The American Newspaper
Annual and Directory for 1928 lists 22,128 periodical publications in America. I have selected at random the N's published
in Chicago. They are:
Narod (Bohemian daily newspaper); Narod-Polski (Polish monthly);
N.A.R.D. (pharmaceutical); National Corporation Reporter; National Culinary Progress (for hotel chefs); National Dog Journal;
National Drug Clerk; National Engineer; National Grocer; National Hotel Reporter; National Income Tax Magazine; National
Jeweler; National Journal of Chiropractic; National Live Stock Producer; National Miller; National Nut News; National Poultry,
Butter and Egg Bulletin; National Provisioner (for meat packers); National Real Estate Journal; National Retail Clothier;
National Retail Lumber Dealer; National Safety News; National Spiritualist; National Underwriter; The Nation's Health;
Naujienos (Lithuanian daily newspaper); New Comer (Republican weekly for Italians); Daily News; The New World (Catholic
weekly); North American Banker; North American Veterinarian.
The circulation of some of these publications is astonishing. The National Live Stock Producer has a sworn circulation of
155,978; The National Engineer, of 20,328; The New World, an estimated circulation of 67,000. The greater number of the
periodicals listed—chosen at random from among 22,128—have a circulation in excess of 10,000.
The diversity of these publications is evident at a glance. Yet they can only
faintly suggest the multitude of cleavages which exist in our society, and along which flow information and opinion carrying
authority to the individual groups.
Here are the conventions
scheduled for Cleveland, Ohio, recorded in a single recent issue of "World Convention Dates"—a fraction
of the 5,500 conventions and rallies scheduled.
Photo-Engravers' Association of America; The Outdoor Writers' Association; the Knights of St. John; the Walther League;
The National Knitted Outerwear Association; The Knights of St. Joseph; The Royal Order of Sphinx; The Mortgage Bankers'
Association; The International Association of Public Employment Officials; The Kiwanis Clubs of Ohio; The American Photo-Engravers'
Association; The Cleveland Auto Manufacturers Show; The American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers.
Other conventions to be held in 1928 were those of:
The Association of Limb Manufacturers' Associations; The National Circus Fans' Association of America; The American Naturopathic
Association; The American Trap Shooting Association; The Texas Folklore Association; The Hotel Greeters; The Fox Breeders'
Association; The Insecticide and Disinfectant Association; The National Association of Egg Case and Egg Case Filler Manufacturers;
The American Bottlers of Carbonated Beverages; and The National Pickle Packers' Association, not to mention the Terrapin
Derby—most of them with banquets and orations attached.
If all these thousands of formal organizations and institutions could be listed (and no complete list has ever been made),
they would still represent but a part of those existing less formally but leading vigorous lives. Ideas are sifted and opinions
stereotyped in the neighborhood bridge club. Leaders assert their authority through community drives and amateur theatricals.
Thousands of women may unconsciously belong to a sorority which follows the fashions set by a single society leader.
"Life" satirically expresses this idea in the reply which it represents
an American as giving to the Britisher who praises this country for having no upper and lower classes or castes:
"Yeah, all we have is the Four Hundred, the White-Collar Men, Bootleggers,
Wall Street Barons, Criminals, the D.A.R., the K.K.K., the Colonial Dames, the Masons, Kiwanis and Rotarians, the K. of
C, the Elks, the Censors, the Cognoscenti, the Morons, Heroes like Lindy, the W.C.T.U., Politicians, Menckenites, the Booboisie,
Immigrants, Broadcasters, and—the Rich and Poor."
Yet it must be remembered that these thousands of groups interlace. John Jones, besides being a Rotarian, is member of a
church, of a fraternal order, of a political party, of a charitable organization, of a professional association, of a local
chamber of commerce, of a league for or against prohibition or of a society for or against lowering the tariff, and of
a golf club. The opinions which he receives as a Rotarian, he will tend to disseminate in the other groups in which he
may have influence.
This invisible, intertwining structure
of groupings and associations is the mechanism by which democracy has organized its group mind and simplified its mass thinking.
To deplore the existence of such a mechanism is to ask for a society such as never was and never will be. To admit that
it easts, but expect that it shall not be used, is unreasonable.
Emil Ludwig represents Napoleon as "ever on the watch for indications of public opinion; always listening to the voice
of the people, a voice which defies calculation. 'Do you know,' he said in those days, 'what amazes me more than all else?
The impotence of force to organize anything.'"
is the purpose of this book to explain the structure of the mechanism which controls the public mind, and to tell how it
is manipulated by the special pleader who seeks to create public acceptance for a particular idea or commodity. It will
attempt at the same time to find the due place in the modern democratic scheme for this new propaganda and to suggest its
gradually evolving code of ethics and practice.
THE NEW PROPAGANDA
IN the days when kings were kings, Louis XIV made his modest remark, "L'Etat c'est moi." He was nearly right.
But times have changed. The steam engine, the multiple
press, and the public school, that trio of the industrial revolution, have taken the power away from kings and given it
to the people. The people actually gained power which the king lost For economic power tends to draw after it political
power; and the history of the industrial revolution shows how that power passed from the king and the aristocracy to the
bourgeoisie. Universal suffrage and universal schooling reinforced this tendency, and at last even the bourgeoisie stood
in fear of the common people. For the masses promised to become king.
To-day, however, a reaction has set in. The minority has discovered a powerful help in influencing majorities. It has been
found possible so to mold the mind of the masses that they will throw their newly gained strength in the desired direction.
In the present structure of society, this practice is inevitable. Whatever of social importance is done to-day, whether
in politics, finance, manufacture, agriculture, charity, education, or other fields, must be done with the help of propaganda.
Propaganda is the executive arm of the invisible government
Universal literacy was supposed to educate the common man to control his environment. Once he could read and write he would
have a mind fit to rule. So ran the democratic doctrine. But instead of a mind, universal literacy has given him rubber
stamps, rubber stamps inked with advertising slogans, with editorials, with published scientific data, with the trivialities
of the tabloids and the platitudes of history, but quite innocent of original thought. Each man's rubber stamps are the
duplicates of millions of others, so that when those millions are exposed to the same stimuli, all receive identical imprints.
It may seem an exaggeration to say that the American public gets most of its ideas in this wholesale fashion. The mechanism
by which ideas are disseminated on a large scale is propaganda, in the broad sense of an organized effort to spread a particular
belief or doctrine.
I am aware that the word "propaganda"
carries to many minds an unpleasant connotation. Yet whether, in any instance, propaganda is good or bad depends upon the
merit of the cause urged, and the correctness of the information published.
In itself, the word "propaganda" has certain technical meanings which, like most things in this world, are "neither
good nor bad but custom makes them so." I find the word defined in Funk and Wagnalls' Dictionary in four ways:
- "A society of cardinals, the overseers of foreign missions; also the College of the Propaganda at Rome founded
by Pope Urban VIII in 1627 for the education of missionary priests; Sacred College de Propaganda Fide.
- "Hence, any institution or scheme for propagating a doctrine or system.
directed systematically toward the gaining of public support for an opinion or a course of action.
- "The principles advanced by a propaganda."
The Scientific American, in a recent issue, pleads for the restoration to respectable
usage of that "fine old word 'propaganda.'"
"There is no word in the English language," it says, "whose meaning has been so sadly distorted as the word
'propaganda.' The change took place mainly during the late war when the term took on a decidedly sinister complexion.
"If you turn to the Standard Dictionary, you will find that the word was
applied to a congregation or society of cardinals for the care and oversight of foreign missions which was instituted at
Rome in the year 1627. It was applied also to the College of the Propaganda at Rome that was founded by Pope Urban VIII,
for the education of the missionary priests. Hence, in later years the word came to be applied to any institution or scheme
for propagating a doctrine or system.
this definition, we can see that in its true sense propaganda is a perfectly legitimate form of human activity. Any society,
whether it be social, religious or political, which is possessed of certain beliefs, and sets out to make them known, either
by the spoken or written words, is practicing propaganda.
"Truth is mighty and must prevail, and if any body of men believe that they have discovered a valuable truth, it is
not merely their privilege but their duty to disseminate that truth. If they realize, as they quickly must, that this spreading
of the truth can be done upon a large scale and effectively only by organized effort, they will make use of the press and
the platform as the best means to give it wide circulation. Propaganda becomes vicious and reprehensive only when its authors
consciously and deliberately disseminate what they know to be lies, or when they aim at effects which they know to be prejudicial
to the common good.
" 'Propaganda' in its proper
meaning is a perfectly wholesome word, of honest parentage, and with an honorable history. The fact that it should to-day
be carrying a sinister meaning merely shows how much of the child remains in the average adult. A group of citizens writes
and talks in favor of a certain course of action in some debatable question, believing that it is promoting the best interest
of the community. Propaganda? Not a bit of it. Just a plain forceful statement of truth. But let another group of citizens
express opposing views, and they are promptly labeled with the sinister name of propaganda. . . .
" 'What is sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander,' says a wise old proverb. Let
us make haste to put this fine old word back where it belongs, and restore its dignified significance for the use of our
children and our children's children."
to which propaganda shapes the progress of affairs about us may surprise even well informed persons. Nevertheless, it is
only necessary to look under the surface of the newspaper for a hint as to propaganda's authority over public opinion.
Page one of the New York Times on the day these paragraphs are written contains eight important news stories. Four of them,
or one-half, are propaganda. The casual reader accepts them as accounts of spontaneous happenings. But are they? Here are
the headlines which announce them: "TWELVE NATIONS WARN CHINA REAL REFORM MUST COME BEFORE THEY GIVE RELIEF,"
"PRITCHETT REPORTS ZIONISM WILL FAIL," "REALTY MEN DEMAND A TRANSIT INQUIRY," and "OUR LIVING
STANDARD HIGHEST IN HISTORY, SAYS HOOVER REPORT."
Take them in order: the article on China explains the joint report of the Commission on Extraterritoriality in China, presenting
an exposition of the Powers' stand in the Chinese muddle. What it says is less important than what it is. It was "made
public by the State Department to-day" with the purpose of presenting to the American public a picture of the State
Department's position. Its source gives it authority, and the American public tends to accept and support the State Department
The report of Dr. Pritchett, a trustee of the Carnegie
Foundation for International Peace, is an attempt to find the facts about this Jewish colony in the midst of a restless
Arab world. When Dr. Pritchett's survey convinced him that in the long run Zionism would "bring more bitterness and
more unhappiness both for the Jew and for the Arab," this point of view was broadcast with all the authority of the
Carnegie Foundation, so that the public would hear and believe. The statement by the president of the Real Estate Board
of New York, and Secretary Hoover's report, are similar attempts to influence the public toward an opinion.
These examples are not given to create the impression that there is anything
sinister about propaganda. They are set down rather to illustrate how conscious direction is given to events, and how the
men behind these events influence public opinion. As such they are examples of modern propaganda. At this point we may
attempt to define propaganda.
Modern propaganda is a consistent,
enduring effort to create or shape events to influence the relations of the public to an enterprise, idea or group.
This practice of creating circumstances and of creating pictures in the minds
of millions of persons is very common. Virtually no important undertaking is now carried on without it, whether that enterprise
be building a cathedral, endowing a university, marketing a moving picture, floating a large bond issue, or electing a president.
Sometimes the effect on the public is created by a professional propagandist, sometimes by an amateur deputed for the job.
The important thing is that it is universal and continuous; and in its sum total it is regimenting the public mind every
bit as much as an army regiments the bodies of its soldiers.
So vast are the numbers of minds which can be regimented, and so tenacious are they when regimented, that a group at times
offers an irresistible pressure before which legislators, editors, and teachers are helpless. The group will cling to its
stereotype, as Walter Lippmann calls it, making of those supposedly powerful beings, the leaders of public opinion, mere
bits of driftwood in the surf. When an Imperial Wizard, sensing what is perhaps hunger for an ideal, offers a picture of
a nation all Nordic and nationalistic, the common man of the older American stock, feeling himself elbowed out of his rightful
position and prosperity by the newer immigrant stocks, grasps the picture which fits in so neatly with his prejudices, and
makes it his own. He buys the sheet and pillow-case costume, and bands with his fellows by the thousand into a huge group
powerful enough to swing state elections and to throw a ponderous monkey wrench into a national convention.
In our present social organization approval of the public is essential to any
large undertaking. Hence a laudable movement may be lost unless it impresses itself on the public mind. Charity, as well
as business, and politics and literature, for that matter, have had to adopt propaganda, for the public must be regimented
into giving money just as it must be regimented into tuberculosis prophylaxis. The Near East Relief, the Association for
the Improvement of the Condition of the Poor of New York, and all the rest, have to work on public opinion just as though
they had tubes of tooth paste to sell. We are proud of our diminishing infant death rate—and that too is the work
Propaganda does exist on all sides of us,
and it does change our mental pictures of the world. Even if this be unduly pessimistic—and that remains to be proved—the
opinion reflects a tendency that is undoubtedly real. In fact, its use is growing as its efficiency in gaining public support
is recognized. This then, evidently indicates the fact that any one with sufficient influence can lead sections of the
public at least for a time and for a given purpose. Formerly the rulers were the leaders. They laid out the course of history,
by the simple process of doing what they wanted. And if nowadays the successors of the rulers, those whose position or
ability gives them power, can no longer do what they want without the approval of the masses, they find in propaganda a
tool which is increasingly powerful in gaining that approval. Therefore, propaganda is here to stay.
It was, of course, the astounding success of propaganda during the war that
opened the eyes of the intelligent few in all departments of life to the possibilities of regimenting the public mind.
The American government and numerous patriotic agencies developed a technique which, to most persons accustomed to bidding
for public acceptance, was new. They not only appealed to the individual by means of every approach—visual, graphic,
and auditory—to support the national endeavor, but they also secured the cooperation of the key men in every group
—persons whose mere word carried authority to hundreds or thousands or hundreds of thousands of followers. They thus
automatically gained the support of fraternal, religious, commercial, patriotic, social and local groups whose members took
their opinions from their accustomed leaders and spokesmen, or from the periodical publications which they were accustomed
to read and believe. At the same time, the manipulators of patriotic opinion made use of the mental cliches and the emotional
habits of the public to produce mass reactions against the alleged atrocities, the terror and the tyranny of the enemy.
It was only natural, after the war ended, that intelligent persons should ask themselves whether it was not possible to
apply a similar technique to the problems of peace.
a matter of fact, the practice of propaganda since the war has assumed very different forms from those prevalent twenty
years ago. This new technique may fairly be called the new propaganda.
It takes account not merely of the individual, nor even of the mass mind alone, but also and especially of the anatomy of
society, with its interlocking group formations and loyalties. It sees the individual not only as a cell in the social organism
but as a cell organized into the social unit. Touch a nerve at a sensitive spot and you get an automatic response from
certain specific members of the organism.
graphic examples of the effect that may be produced upon the public by interested groups, such as textile manufacturers
losing their markets. This problem arose, not long ago, when the velvet manufacturers were facing ruin because their product
had long been out of fashion. Analysis showed that it was impossible to revive a velvet fashion within America. Anatomical
hunt for the vital spot! Paris! Obviously! But yes and no. Paris is the home of fashion. Lyons is the home of silk.
The attack had to be made at the source. It was determined to substitute purpose for chance and to utilize the regular
sources for fashion distribution and to influence the public from these sources. A velvet fashion service, openly supported
by the manufacturers, was organized. Its first function was to establish contact with the Lyons manufactories and the Paris
couturiers to discover what they were doing, to encourage them to act on behalf of velvet, and to help in the proper exploitation
of their wares. An intelligent Parisian was enlisted in the work. He visited Lanvin and Worth, Agnes and Patou, and others
and induced them to use velvet in their gowns and hats. It was he who arranged for the distinguished Countess This or Duchess
That to wear the hat or the gown. And as for the presentation of the idea to the public, the American buyer or the American
woman of fashion was simply shown the velvet creations in the atelier of the dressmaker or the milliner. She bought the
velvet because she liked it and because it was in fashion.
The editors of the American magazines and fashion reporters of the American newspapers, likewise subjected to the actual
(although created) circumstance, reflected it in their news, which, in turn, subjected the buyer and the consumer here to
the same influences. The result was that what was at first a trickle of velvet became a flood. A demand was slowly,
but deliberately, created in Paris and America. A big department store, aiming to be a style leader, advertised velvet gowns
and hats on the authority of the French couturiers, and quoted original cables received from them. The echo of the new
style note was heard from hundreds of department stores throughout the country which wanted to be style leaders too. Bulletins
followed despatches. The mail followed the cables. And the American woman traveler appeared before the ship news photographers
in velvet gown and hat.
The created circumstances had
their effect. "Fickle fashion has veered to velvet," was one newspaper comment. And the industry in the United
States again kept thousands busy.
The new propaganda,
having regard to the constitution of society as a whole, not infrequently serves to focus and realize the desires of the
masses. A desire for a specific reform, however widespread, cannot be translated into action until it is made articulate,
and until it has exerted sufficient pressure upon the proper law-making bodies. Millions of housewives may feel that manufactured
foods deleterious to health should be prohibited. But there is little chance that their individual desires will be translated
into effective legal form unless their halfexpressed demand can be organized, made vocal, and concentrated upon the state
legislature or upon the Federal Congress in some mode which will produce the results they desire. Whether they realize
it or not, they call upon propaganda to organize and effectuate their demand.
But clearly it is the intelligent minorities which need to make use of propaganda continuously and systematically. In the
active proselytizing minorities in whom selfish interests and public interests coincide lie the progress and development
of America. Only through the active energy of the intelligent few can the public at large become aware of and act upon new
Small groups of persons can, and do, make the rest
of us think what they please about a given subject. But there are usually proponents and opponents of every propaganda, both
of whom are equally eager to convince the majority.
THE NEW PROPAGANDISTS
WHO are the men who, without our realizing it, give us our ideas, tell us whom to admire
and whom to despise, what to believe about the ownership of public utilities, about the tariff, about the price of rubber,
about the Dawes Plan, about immigration; who tell us how our houses should be designed, what furniture we should put into
them, what menus we should serve on our table, what kind of shirts we must wear, what sports we should indulge in, what
plays we should see, what charities we should support, what pictures we should admire, what slang we should affect, what
jokes we should laugh at?
If we set out to make a list
of the men and women who, because of their position in public life, might fairly be called the molders of public opinion,
we could quickly arrive at an extended list of persons mentioned in "Who's Who." It would obviously include,
the President of the United States and the members of his Cabinet; the Senators and Representatives in Congress; the Governors
of our fortyeight states; the presidents of the chambers of commerce in our hundred largest cities, the chairmen of the
boards of directors of our hundred or more largest industrial corporations, the president of many of the labor unions affiliated
in the American Federation of Labor, the national president of each of the national professional and fraternal organizations,
the president of each of the racial or language societies in the country, the hundred leading newspaper and magazine editors,
the fifty most popular authors, the presidents of the fifty leading charitable organizations, the twenty leading theatrical
or cinema producers, the hundred recognized leaders of fashion, the most popular and influential clergymen in the hundred
leading cities, the presidents of our colleges and universities and the foremost members of their faculties, the most powerful
financiers in Wall Street, the most noted amateurs of sport, and so on. Such a list would comprise several thousand persons.
But it is well known that many of these leaders are themselves led, sometimes by persons whose names are known to few. Many
a congressman, in framing his platform, follows the suggestions of a district boss whom few persons outside the political
machine have ever heard of. Eloquent divines may have great influence in their communities, but often take their doctrines
from a higher ecclesiastical authority. The presidents of chambers of commerce mold the thought of local business men concerning
public issues, but the opinions which they promulgate are usually derived from some national authority. A presidential
candidate may be "drafted" in response to "overwhelming popular demand," but it is well known
that his name may be decided upon by half a dozen men sitting around a table in a hotel room.
In some instances the power of invisible wirepullers is flagrant. The power of the invisible
cabinet which deliberated at the poker table in a certain little green house in Washington has become a national legend.
There was a period in which the major policies of the national government were dictated by a single man, Mark Hanna. A
Simmons may, for a few years, succeed in marshaling millions of men on a platform of intolerance and violence.
Such persons typify in the public mind the type of ruler associated with the
phrase invisible government. But we do not often stop to think that there are dictators in other fields whose influence is
just as decisive as that of the politicians I have mentioned. An Irene Castle can establish the fashion of short hair which
dominates nine-tenths of the women who make any pretense to being fashionable. Paris fashion leaders set the mode of the
short skirt, for wearing which, twenty years ago, any woman would simply have been arrested and thrown into jail by the
New York police, and the entire women's clothing industry, capitalized at hundreds of millions of dollars, must be reorganized
to conform to their dictum.
There are invisible rulers
who control the destinies of millions. It is not generally realized to what extent the words and actions of our most influential
public men are dictated by shrewd persons operating behind the scenes.
Nor, what is still more important, the extent to which our thoughts and habits are modified by authorities.
In some departments of our daily life, in which we imagine ourselves free agents,
we are ruled by dictators exercising great power. A man buying a suit of clothes imagines that he is choosing, according
to his taste and his personality, the kind of garment which he prefers. In reality, he may be obeying the orders of an anonymous
gentleman tailor in London. This personage is the silent partner in a modest tailoring establishment, which is patronized
by gentlemen of fashion and princes of the blood. He suggests to British noblemen and others a blue cloth instead of gray,
two buttons instead of three, or sleeves a quarter of an inch narrower than last season. The distinguished customer approves
of the idea.
But how does this fact affect John Smith
The gentleman tailor is under contract with
a certain large American firm, which manufactures men's suits, to send them instantly the designs of the suits chosen
by the leaders of London fashion. Upon receiving the designs, with specifications as to color, weight and texture,
the firm immediately places an order with the cloth makers for several hundred thousand dollars' worth of cloth. The suits
made up according to the specifications are then advertised as the latest fashion. The fashionable men in New York, Chicago,
Boston and Philadelphia wear them. And the Topeka man, recognizing this leadership, does the same.
Women are just as subject to the commands of invisible government as are men.
A silk manufacturer, seeking a new market for its product, suggested to a large manufacturer of shoes that women's shoes
should be covered with silk to match their dresses. The idea was adopted and systematically propagandized. A popular actress
was persuaded to wear the shoes. The fashion spread. The shoe firm was ready with the supply to meet the created demand.
And the silk company was ready with the silk for more shoes.
The man who injected this idea into the shoe industry was ruling women in one department of their social lives. Different
men rule us in the various departments of our lives. There may be one power behind the throne in politics, another in the
manipulation of the Federal discount rate, and still another in the dictation of next season's dances. If there were a
national invisible cabinet ruling our destinies (a thing which is not impossible to conceive of) it would work through certain
group leaders on Tuesday for one purpose, and through an entirely different set on Wednesday for another. The idea of invisible
government is relative. There may be a handful of men who control the educational methods of the great majority of our schools.
Yet from another standpoint, every parent is a group leader with authority over his or her children.
The invisible government tends to be concentrated in the hands of the few because
of the expense of manipulating the social machinery which controls the opinions and habits of the masses. To advertise on
a scale which will reach fifty million persons is expensive. To reach and persuade the group leaders who dictate the public's
thoughts and actions is likewise expensive.
For this reason
there is an increasing tendency to concentrate the functions of propaganda in the hands of the propaganda specialist. This
specialist is more and more assuming a distinct place and function in our national life.
New activities call for new nomenclature. The propagandist who specializes in interpreting
enterprises and ideas to the public, and in interpreting the public to promulgators of new enterprises and ideas, has come
to be known by the name of "public relations counsel."
The new profession of public relations has grown up because of the increasing complexity of modern life and the consequent
necessity for making the actions of one part of the public understandable to other sectors of the public. It is due, too,
to the increasing dependence of organized power of all sorts upon public opinion. Governments, whether they are monarchical,
constitutional, democratic or communist, depend upon acquiescent public opinion for the success of their efforts and, in
fact, government is only government by virtue of public acquiescence. Industries, public utilities, educational movements,
indeed all groups representing any concept or product, whether they are majority or minority ideas, succeed only because
of approving public opinion. Public opinion is the unacknowledged partner in all broad efforts.
The public relations counsel, then, is the agent who, working with modern media of communication
and the group formations of society, brings an idea to the consciousness of the public. But he is a great deal more than
that. He is concerned with courses of action, doctrines, systems and opinions, and the securing of public support for them.
He is also concerned with tangible things such as manufactured and raw products. He is concerned with public utilities,
with large trade groups and associations representing entire industries.
He functions primarily as an adviser to his client, very much as a lawyer does. A lawyer concentrates on the legal aspects
of his client's business. A counsel on public relations concentrates on the public contacts of his client's business.
Every phase of his client's ideas, products or activities which may affect the public or in which the public may have an
interest is part of his function.
For instance, in the
specific problems of the manufacturer he examines the product, the markets, the way in which the public reacts to the product,
the attitude of the employees to the public and towards the product, and the cooperation of the distribution agencies.
The counsel on public relations, after he has examined all
these and other factors, endeavors to shape the actions of his client so that they will gain the interest, the approval
and the acceptance of the public.
The means by which the
public is apprised of the actions of his client are as varied as the means of communication themselves, such as conversation,
letters, the stage, the motion picture, the radio, the lecture platform, the magazine, the daily newspaper. The counsel
on public relations is not an advertising man but he advocates advertising where that is indicated. Very often he is called
in by an advertising agency to supplement its work on behalf of a client. His work and that of the advertising agency do
not conflict with or duplicate each other.
His first efforts
are, naturally, devoted to analyzing his client's problems and making sure that what he has to offer the public is something
which the public accepts or can be brought to accept. It is futile to attempt to sell an idea or to prepare the ground
for a product that is basically unsound.
For example, an
orphan asylum is worried by a falling off in contributions and a puzzling attitude of indifference or hostility on the part
of the public. The counsel on public relations may discover upon analysis that the public, alive to modern sociological
trends, subconsciously criticizes the institution because it is not organized on the new "cottage plan." He will
advise modification of the client in this respect. Or a railroad may be urged to put on a fast train for the sake of the
prestige which it will lend to the road's name, and hence to its stocks and bonds.
If the corset makers, for instance, wished to bring their product into fashion again, he would unquestionably advise that
the plan was impossible, since women have definitely emancipated themselves from the old-style corset. Yet his fashion advisers
might report that women might be persuaded to adopt a certain type of girdle which eliminated the unhealthful features
of the corset.
His next effort is to analyze his public.
He studies the groups which must be reached, and the leaders through whom he may approach these groups. Social groups,
economic groups, geographical groups, age groups, doctrinal groups, language groups, cultural groups, all these represent
the divisions through which, on behalf of his client, he may talk to the public.
Only after this double analysis has been made and the results collated, has the time come for the next step, the formulation
of policies governing the general practice, procedure and habits of the client in all those aspects in which he comes in
contact with the public. And only when these policies have been agreed upon is it time for the fourth step.
The first recognition of the distinct functions of the public relations counsel
arose, perhaps, in the early years of the present century as a result of the insurance scandals coincident with the muck-raking
of corporate finance in the popular magazines. The interests thus attacked suddenly realized that they were completely
out of touch with the public they were professing to serve, and required expert advice to show them how they could understand
the public and interpret themselves to it.
Life Insurance Company, prompted by the most fundamental self-interest, initiated a conscious, directed effort to change
the attitude of the public toward insurance companies in general, and toward itself in particular, to its profit and the
It tried to make a majority movement
of itself by getting the public to buy its policies. It reached the public at every point of its corporate and separate
existences. To communities it gave health surveys and expert counsel. To individuals it gave health creeds and advice.
Even the building in which the corporation was located was made a picturesque landmark to see and remember, in other words
to carry on the associative process. And so this company came to have a broad general acceptance. The number and amount
of its policies grew constantly, as its broad contacts with society increased.
Within a decade, many large corporations were employing public relations counsel under one title or another, for they had
come to recognize that they depended upon public good will for their continued prosperity. It was no longer true that it
was "none of the public's business" how the affairs of a corporation were managed. They were obliged to convince
the public that they were conforming to its demands as to honesty and fairness. Thus a corporation might discover that
its labor policy was causing public resentment, and might introduce a more enlightened policy solely for the sake of general
good will. Or a department store, hunting for the cause of diminishing sales, might discover that its clerks had a reputation
for bad manners, and initiate formal instruction in courtesy and tact.
The public relations expert may be known as public relations director or counsel. Often he is called secretary or vice-president
or director. Sometimes he is known as cabinet officer or commissioner. By whatever title he may be called, his function
is well defined and his advice has definite bearing on the conduct of the group or individual with whom he is working.
Many persons still believe that the public relations counsel
is a propagandist and nothing else. But, on the contrary, the stage at which many suppose he starts his activities may actually
be the stage at which he ends them. After the public and the client are thoroughly analyzed and policies have been formulated,
his work may be finished. In other cases the work of the public relations counsel must be continuous to be effective. For
in many instances only by a careful system of constant, thorough and frank information will the public understand and appreciate
the value of what a merchant, educator or statesman is doing. The counsel on public relations must maintain constant vigilance,
because inadequate information, or false information from unknown sources, may have results of enormous importance. A single
false rumor at a critical moment may drive down the price of a corporation's stock, causing a loss of millions to stockholders.
An air of secrecy or mystery about a corporation's financial dealings may breed a general suspicion capable of acting as
an invisible drag on the company's whole dealings with the public. The counsel on public relations must be in a position
to deal effectively with rumors and suspicions, attempting to stop them at their source, counteracting them promptly with
correct or more complete information through channels which will be most effective, or best of all establishing such relations
of confidence in the concern's integrity that rumors and suspicions will have no opportunity to take root.
His function may include the discovery of new markets, the existence of which
had been unsuspected.
If we accept public relations as
a profession, we must also expect it to have both ideals and ethics. The ideal of the profession is a pragmatic one. It
is to make the producer, whether that producer be a legislature making laws or a manufacturer making a commercial product,
understand what the public wants and to make the public understand the objectives of the producer. In relation to industry,
the ideal of the profession is to eliminate the waste and the friction that result when industry does things or makes things
which its public does not want, or when the public does not understand what is being offered it. For example, the telephone
companies maintain extensive public relations departments to explain what they are doing, so that energy may not be burned
up in the friction of misunderstanding. A detailed description, for example, of the immense and scientific care which the
company takes to choose clearly understandable and distinguishable exchange names, helps the public to appreciate the effort
that is being made to give good service, and stimulates it to cooperate by enunciating clearly. It aims to bring about an
understanding between educators and educated, between government and people, between charitable institutions and contributors,
between nation and nation.
The profession of public relations
counsel is developing for itself an ethical code which compares favorably with that governing the legal and medical professions.
In part, this code is forced upon the public relations counsel by the very conditions of his work. While recognizing, just
as the lawyer does, that every one has the right to present his case in its best light, he nevertheless refuses a client
whom he believes to be dishonest, a product which he believes to be fraudulent, or a cause which he believes to be antisocial.
One reason for this is that, even though a special pleader, he is not dissociated from the client in the public's mind.
Another reason is that while he is pleading before the court—the court of public opinion—he is at the same time
trying to affect that court's judgments and actions. In law, the judge and jury hold the deciding balance of power. In
public opinion, the public relations counsel is judge and jury, because through his pleading of a case the public may accede
to his opinion and judgment.
He does not accept a client
whose interests conflict with those of another client. He does not accept a client whose case he believes to be hopeless
or whose product he believes to be unmarketable.
be candid in his dealings. It must be repeated that his business is not to fool or hoodwink the public. If he were to get
such a reputation, his usefulness in his profession would be at an end. When he is sending out propaganda material, it is
clearly labeled as to source. The editor knows from whom it comes and what its purpose is, and accepts or rejects it on
its merits as news.
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
The systematic study of mass psychology revealed to students the potentialities of invisible government of society by manipulation
of the motives which actuate man in the group. Trotter and Le Bon, who approached the subject in a scientific manner, and
Graham Wallas, Walter Lippmann and others who continued with searching studies of the group mind, established that the group
has mental characteristics distinct from those of the individual, and is motivated by impulses and emotions which cannot
be explained on the basis of what we know of individual psychology. So the question naturally arose: If we understand the
mechanism and motives of the group mind, is it not possible to control and regiment the masses according to our will without
their knowing it?
The recent practice of propaganda has
proved that it is possible, at least up to a certain point and within certain limits. Mass psychology is as yet far from
being an exact science and the mysteries of human motivation are by no means all revealed. But at least theory and practice
have combined with sufficient success to permit us to know that in certain cases we can effect some change in public opinion
with a fair degree of accuracy by operating a certain mechanism, just as the motorist can regulate the speed of his car
by manipulating the flow of gasoline. Propaganda is not a science in the laboratory sense, but it is no longer entirely the
empirical affair that it was before the advent of the study of mass psychology. It is now scientific in the sense that it
seeks to base its operations upon definite knowledge drawn from direct observation of the group mind, and upon the application
of principles which have been demonstrated to be consistent and relatively constant
The modern propagandist studies systematically and objectively the material with which he is working in the spirit of the
laboratory. If the matter in hand is a nation-wide sales campaign, he studies the field by means of a clipping service,
or of a corps of scouts, or by personal study at a crucial spot He determines, for example, which features of a product
are losing their public appeal, and in what new direction the public taste is veering. He will not fail to investigate to
what extent it is the wife who has the final word in the choice of her husband's car, or of his suits and shirts.
Scientific accuracy of results is not to be expected, because many of the elements
of the situation must always be beyond his control. He may know with a fair degree of certainty that under favorable circumstances
an international flight will produce a spirit of good will, making possible even the consummation of political programs.
But he cannot be sure that some unexpected event will not overshadow this flight in the public interest, or that some other
aviator may not do something more spectacular the day before. Even in his restricted field of public psychology there must
always be a wide margin of error. Propaganda, like economics and sociology, can never be an exact science for the reason
that its subject-matter, like theirs, deals with human beings.
If you can influence the leaders, either with or without their conscious cooperation, you automatically influence the group
which they sway. But men do not need to be actually gathered together in a public meeting or in a street riot, to be subject
to the influences of mass psychology. Because man is by nature gregarious he feels himself to be member of a herd, even
when he is alone in his room with the curtains drawn. His mind retains the patterns which have been stamped on it by the
group influences. A man sits in his office deciding what stocks to buy. He imagines, no doubt, that he is planning his purchases
according to his own judgment. In actual fact his judgment is a melange of impressions stamped on his mind by outside influences
which unconsciously control his thought. He buys a certain railroad stock because it was in the headlines yesterday and
hence is the one which comes most prominently to his mind; because he has a pleasant recollection of a good dinner on one
of its fast trains; because it has a liberal labor policy, a reputation for honesty; because he has been told that J. P.
Morgan owns some of its shares.
Trotter and Le Bon concluded
that the group mind does not think in the strict sense of the word. In place of thoughts it has impulses, habits and emotions.
In making up its mind its first impulse is usually to follow the example of a trusted leader. This is one of the most firmly
established principles of mass psychology. It operates in establishing the rising or diminishing prestige of a summer resort,
in causing a run on a bank, or a panic on the stock exchange, in creating a best seller, or a box-office success.
But when the example of the leader is not at hand and the herd must think for
itself, it does so by means of cliches, pat words or images which stand for a whole group of ideas or experiences. Not
many years ago, it was only necessary to tag a political candidate with the word interests to stampede millions of people
into voting against him, because anything associated with "the interests" seemed necessarily corrupt. Recently
the word Bolshevik has performed a similar service for persons who wished to frighten the public away from a line of action.
By playing upon an old cliche, or manipulating a new one,
the propagandist can sometimes swing a whole mass of group emotions. In Great Britain, during the war, the evacuation hospitals
came in for a considerable amount of criticism because of the summary way in which they handled their wounded. It was assumed
by the public that a hospital gives prolonged and conscientious attention to its patients. When the name was changed to
evacuation posts the critical reaction vanished. No one expected more than an adequate emergency treatment from an institution
so named. The cliche hospital was indelibly associated in the public mind with a certain picture. To persuade the public
to discriminate between one type of hospital and another, to dissociate the cliche from the picture it evoked, would have
been an impossible task. Instead, a new cliche automatically conditioned the public emotion toward these hospitals.
Men are rarely aware of the real reasons which motivate their actions. A
man may believe that he buys a motor car because, after careful study of the technical features of all makes on the market,
he has concluded that this is the best. He is almost certainly fooling himself. He bought it, perhaps, because a friend
whose financial acumen he respects bought one last week; or because his neighbors believed he was not able to afford a car
of that class; or because its colors are those of his college fraternity.
It is chiefly the psychologists of the school of Freud who have pointed out that many of man's thoughts and actions are
compensatory substitutes for desires which he has been obliged to suppress. A thing may be desired not for its intrinsic
worth or usefulness, but because he has unconsciously come to see in it a symbol of something else, the desire for which
he is ashamed to admit to himself. A man buying a car may think he wants it for purposes of locomotion, whereas the fact
may be that he would really prefer not to be burdened with it, and would rather walk for the sake of his health. He may
really want it because it is a symbol of social position, an evidence of his success in business, or a means of pleasing
This general principle, that men are very largely
actuated bv motives which they conceal from themselves, is as true of mass as of individual psychology. It is evident that
the successful propagandist must understand the true motives and not be content to accept the reasons which men give for
what they do.
It is not sufficient to understand only the
mechanical structure of society, the groupings and cleavages and loyalties. An engineer may know all about the cylinders
and pistons of a locomotive, but unless he knows how steam behaves under pressure he cannot make his engine run. Human desires
are the steam which makes the social machine work. Only by understanding them can the propagandist control that vast, loose-jointed
mechanism which is modern society.
The old propagandist
based his work on the mechanistic reaction psychology then in vogue in our colleges. This assumed that the human mind was
merely an individual machine, a system of nerves and nerve centers, reacting with mechanical regularity to stimuli, like
a helpless, will-less automaton. It was the special pleader's function to provide the stimulus which would cause the desired
reaction in the individual purchaser.
It was one of the
doctrines of the reaction psychology that a certain stimulus often repeated would create a habit, or that the mere reiteration
of an idea would create a conviction. Suppose the old type of salesmanship, acting for a meat packer, was seeking to increase
the sale of bacon. It would reiterate innumerable times in full-page advertisements: "Eat more bacon. Eat bacon because
it is cheap, because it is good, because it gives you reserve energy."
The newer salesmanship, understanding the group structure of society and the principles of mass psychology, would first ask:
"Who is it that influences the eating habits of the public?" The answer, obviously, is: "The physicians."
The new salesman will then suggest to physicians to say publicly that it is wholesome to eat bacon. He knows as a mathematical
certainty, that large numbers of persons will follow the advice of their doctors, because he understands the psychological
relation of dependence of men upon their physicians.
old-fashioned propagandist, using almost exclusively the appeal of the printed word, tried to persuade the individual reader
to buy a definite article, immediately. This approach is exemplified in a type of advertisement which used to be considered
ideal from the point of view of directness and effectiveness:
(perhaps with a finger pointing at the reader) buy O'Leary's rubber heels—NOW."
The advertiser sought by means of reiteration and emphasis directed upon the individual,
to break down or penetrate sales resistance. Although the appeal was aimed at fifty million persons, it was aimed at each
as an individual.
The new salesmanship has found it possible,
by dealing with men in the mass through their group formations, to set up psychological and emotional currents which will
work for him. Instead of assaulting sales resistance by direct attack, he is interested in removing sales resistance. He
creates circumstances which will swing emotional currents so as to make for purchaser demand.
If, for instance, I want to sell pianos, it is not sufficient to blanket the country with
a direct appeal, such as:
"YOU buy a Mozart piano now. It is cheap.
The best artists use it. It will last for years."
The claims may all be true, but they are in direct conflict with the claims of other piano manufacturers, and in indirect
competition with the claims of a radio or a motor car, each competing for the consumer's dollar.
What are the true reasons why the purchaser is planning to spend his money on a new car
instead of on a new piano? Because he has decided that he wants the commodity called locomotion more than he wants the
commodity called music? Not altogether. He buys a car, because it is at the moment the group custom to buy cars.
The modern propagandist therefore sets to work to create circumstances which
will modify that custom. He appeals perhaps to the home instinct which is fundamental. He will endeavor to develop public
acceptance of the idea of a music room in the home. This he may do, for example, by organizing an exhibition of period music
rooms designed by well known decorators who themselves exert an influence on the buying groups. He enhances the effectiveness
and prestige of these rooms by putting in them rare and valuable tapestries. Then, in order to create dramatic interest
in the exhibit, he stages an event or ceremony. To this ceremony key people, persons known to influence the buying habits
of the public, such as a famous violinist, a popular artist, and a society leader, are invited. These key persons affect
other groups, lifting the idea of the music room to a place in the public consciousness which it did not have before. The
juxtaposition of these leaders, and the idea which they are dramatizing, are then projected to the wider public through
various publicity channels. Meanwhile, influential architects have been persuaded to make the music room an integral architectural
part of their plans with perhaps a specially charming niche in one corner for the piano. Less influential architects will
as a matter of course imitate what is done by the men whom they consider masters of their profession. They in turn will
implant the idea of the music room in the mind of the general public.
The music room will be accepted because it has been made the thing. And the man or woman who has a music room, or has arranged
a corner of the parlor as a musical corner, will naturally think of buying a piano. It will come to him as his own idea.
Under the old salesmanship the manufacturer said to the
prospective purchaser, "Please buy a piano." The new salesmanship has reversed the process and caused the prospective
purchaser to say to the manufacturer, "Please sell me a piano."
The value of the associative processes in propaganda is shown in connection with a large real estate development. To emphasize
that Jackson Heights was socially desirable every attempt was made to produce this associative process. A benefit performance
of the Jitney Players was staged for the benefit of earthquake victims of Japan, under the auspices of Mrs. Astor and others.
The social advantages of the place were projected—a golf course was laid out and a clubhouse planned. When the post
office was opened, the public relations counsel attempted to use it as a focus for national interest and discovered that
its opening fell coincident with a date important in the annals of the American Postal Service. This was then made the basis
of the opening.
When an attempt was made to show the public
the beauty of the apartments, a competition was held among interior decorators for the best furnished apartment in Jackson
Heights. An important committee of judges decided. This competition drew the approval of well known authorities, as well
as the interest of millions, who were made cognizant of it through newspaper and magazine and other publicity, with the
effect of building up definitely the prestige of the development.
One of the most effective methods is the utilization of the group formation of modern society in order to spread ideas.
An example of this is the nationwide competitions for sculpture in Ivory soap, open to school children in certain age groups
as well as professional sculptors. A sculptor of national reputation found Ivory soap an excellent medium for sculpture.
The Procter and Gamble Company offered a series of prizes
for the best sculpture in white soap. The contest was held under the auspices of the Art Center in New York City, an organization
of high standing in the art world.
and teachers throughout the country were glad to encourage the movement as an educational aid for schools. Practice among
school children as part of their art courses was stimulated. Contests were held between schools, between school districts
and between cities.
Ivory soap was adaptable for sculpturing
in the homes because mothers saved the shavings and the imperfect efforts for laundry purposes. The work itself was clean.
The best pieces are selected from the local competitions
for entry in the national contest. This is held annually at an important art gallery in New York, whose prestige with that
of the distinguished judges, establishes the contest as a serious art event.
In the first of these national competitions about 500 pieces of sculpture were entered. In the third, 2,500. And in the
fourth, more than 4,000. If the carefully selected pieces were so numerous, it is evident that a vast number were sculptured
during the year, and that a much greater number must have been made for practice purposes. The good will was greatly enhanced
by the fact that this soap had become not merely the concern of the housewife but also a matter of personal and intimate
interest to her children.
A number of familiar psychological
motives were set in motion in the carrying out of this campaign. The esthetic, the competitive, the gregarious (much of
the sculpturing was done in school groups), the snobbish (the impulse to follow the example of a recognized leader), the
exhibitionist, and—last but by no means least—the maternal.
All these motives and group habits were put in concerted motion by the simple machinery of group leadership and authority.
As if actuated by the pressure of a button, people began working for the client for the sake of the gratification obtained
in the sculpture work itself.
This point is most important
in successful propaganda work. The leaders who lend their authority to any propaganda campaign will do so only if it can
be made to touch their own interests. There must be a disinterested aspect of the propagandist's activities. In other words,
it is one of the functions of the public relations counsel to discover at what points his client's interests coincide with
those of other individuals or groups.
In the case of the
soap sculpture competition, the distinguished artists and educators who sponsored the idea were glad to lend their services
and their names because the competitions really promoted an interest which they had at heart—the cultivation of the
esthetic impulse among the younger generation.
and overlapping of interests is as infinite as the interlacing of group formations themselves. For example, a railway wishes
to develop its business. The counsel on public relations makes a survey to discover at what points its interests coincide
with those of its prospective customers. The company then establishes relations with chambers of commerce along its right
of way and assists them in developing their communities. It helps them to secure new plants and industries for the town.
It facilitates business through the dissemination of technical information. It is not merely a case of bestowing favors
in the hope of receiving favors; these activities of the railroad, besides creating good will, actually promote growth on
its right of way. The interests of the railroad and the communities through which it passes mutually interact and feed
In the same way, a bank institutes an investment
service for the benefit of its customers in order that the latter may have more money to deposit with the bank. Or a jewelry
concern develops an insurance department to insure the jewels it sells, in order to make the purchaser feel greater security
in buying jewels. Or a baking company establishes an information service suggesting recipes for bread to encourage new uses
for bread in the home. The ideas of the new propaganda are predicated on sound psychology based on enlightened selfinterest.
I have tried, in these chapters, to explain the place
of propaganda in modern American life and something of the methods by which it operates—to tell the why, the what,
the who and the how of the invisible government which dictates our thoughts, directs our feelings and controls our actions.
In the following chapters I shall try to show how propaganda functions in specific departments of group activity, to suggest
some of the further ways in which it may operate.
BUSINESS AND THE PUBLIC
THE relationship between business and the public has become closer in the past few decades. Business to-day is taking the
public into partnership. A number of causes, some economic, others due to the growing public understanding of business and
the public interest in business, have produced this situation. Business realizes that its relationship to the public is
not confined to the manufacture and sale of a given product, but includes at the same time the selling of itself and of
all those things for which it stands in the public mind.
Twenty or twenty-five years ago, business sought to run its own affairs regardless of the public. The reaction was the muck-raking
period, in which a multitude of sins were, justly and unjustly, laid to the charge of the interests. In the face of an
aroused public conscience the large corporations were obliged to renounce their contention that their affairs were nobody's
business. If to-day big business were to seek to throttle the public, a new reaction similar to that of twenty years ago
would take place and the public would rise and try to throttle big business with restrictive laws. Business is conscious
of the public's conscience. This consciousness has led to a healthy cooperation.
Another cause for the increasing relationship is undoubtedly to be found in the various phenomena growing out of mass production.
Mass production is only profitable if its rhythm can be maintained— that is, if it can continue to sell its product
in steady or increasing quantity. The result is that while, under the handicraft or small-unit system of production that
was typical a century ago, demand created the supply, to-day supply must actively seek to create its corresponding demand.
A single factory, potentially capable of supplying a whole continent with its particular product, cannot afford to wait
until the public asks for its product; it must maintain constant touch, through advertising and propaganda, with the vast
public in order to assure itself the continuous demand which alone will make its costly plant profitable. This entails a
vastly more complex system of distribution than formerly. To make customers is the new problem. One must understand not
only his own business—the manufacture of a particular product—but also the structure, the personality, the prejudices,
of a potentially universal public.
Still another reason
is to be found in the improvements in the technique of advertising—as regards both the size of the public which can
be reached by the printed word, and the methods of appeal. The growth of newspapers and magazines having a circulation
of millions of copies, and the art of the modern advertising expert in making the printed message attractive and persuasive,
have placed the business man in a personal relation with a vast and diversified public.
Another modern phenomenon, which' influences the general policy of big business, is the
new competition between certain firms and the remainder of the industry, to which they belong. Another kind of competition
is between whole industries, in their struggle for a share of the consumer's dollar. When, for example, a soap manufacturer
claims that his product will preserve youth, he is obviously attempting to change the public's mode of thinking about soap
in general—a thing of grave importance to the whole industry. Or when the metal furniture industry seeks to convince
the public that it is more desirable to spend its money for metal furniture than for wood furniture, it is clearly seeking
to alter the taste and standards of a whole generation. In either case, business is seeking to inject itself into the lives
and customs of millions of persons.
Even in a basic sense,
business is becoming dependent on public opinion. With the increasing volume and wider diffusion of wealth in America, thousands
of persons now invest in industrial stocks. New stock or bond flotations, upon which an expanding business must depend
for its success, can be effected only if the concern has understood how to gain the confidence and good will of the general
public. Business must express itself and its entire corporate existence so that the public will understand and accept it.
It must dramatize its personality and interpret its objectives in every particular in which it comes into contact with the
community (or the nation) of which it is a part.
corporation which truly understands its many-sided relation to the public, will offer that public not only good oil but
a sound labor policy. A bank will seek to show not only that its management is sound and conservative, but also that its
officers are honorable both in their public and in their private life. A store specializing in fashionable men's clothing
will express in its architecture the authenticity of the goods it offers. A bakery will seek to impress the public with
the hygienic care observed in its manufacturing process, not only by wrapping its loaves in dust-proof paper and throwing
its factory open to public inspection, but also by the cleanliness and attractiveness of its delivery wagons. A construction
firm will take care that the public knows not only that its buildings are durable and safe, but also that its employees,
when injured at work, are compensated. At whatever point a business enterprise impinges on the public consciousness, it must
seek to give its public relations the particular character which will conform to the objectives which it is pursuing.
Just as the production manager must be familiar with every element and detail
concerning the materials with which he is working, so the man in charge of a firm's public relations must be familiar with
the structure, the prejudices, and the whims of the general public, and must handle his problems with the utmost care. The
public has its own standards and demands and habits. You may modify them, but you dare not run counter to them. You cannot
persuade a whole generation of women to wear long skirts, but you may, by working through leaders of fashion, persuade them
to wear evening dresses which are long in back. The public is not an amorphous mass which can be molded at will, or dictated
to. Both business and the public have their own personalities which must somehow be brought into friendly agreement. Conflict
and suspicion are injurious to both. Modern business must study on what terms the partnership can be made amicable and mutually
beneficial. It must explain itself, its aims, its objectives, to the public in terms which the public can understand and
is willing to accept.
Business does not willingly accept
dictation from the public. It should not expect that it can dictate to the public. While the public should appreciate the
great economic benefits which business offers, thanks to mass production and scientific marketing, business should also
appreciate that the public is becoming increasingly discriminative in its standards and should seek to understand its demands
and meet them. The relationship between business and the public can be healthy only if it is the relationship of give and
It is this condition and necessity which has created
the need for a specialized field of public relations. Business now calls in the public relations counsel to advise it,
to interpret its purpose to the public, and to suggest those modifications which may make it conform to the public demand.
The modifications then recommended to make the business
conform to its objectives and to the public demand, may concern the broadest matters of policy or the apparently most trivial
details of execution. It might in one case be necessary to transform entirely the lines of goods sold to conform to changing
public demands. In another case the trouble may be found to lie in such small matters as the dress of the clerks. A jewelry
store may complain that its patronage is shrinking upwards because of its reputation for carrying high-priced goods; in
this case the public relations counsel might suggest the featuring of medium-priced goods, even at a loss, not because the
firm desires a large medium-price trade as such, but because out of a hundred medium-price customers acquired to-day a
certain percentage will be well-todo ten years from now. A department store which is seeking to gather in the high-class
trade may be urged to employ college graduates as clerks or to engage well known modern artists to design show-windows
or special exhibits. A bank may be urged to open a Fifth Avenue branch, not because the actual business done on Fifth Avenue
warrants the expense, but because a beautiful Fifth Avenue office correctly expresses the kind of appeal which it wishes
to make to future depositors; and, viewed in this way, it may be as important that the doorman be polite, or that the floors
be kept clean, as that the branch manager be an able financier. Yet the beneficial effect of this branch may be canceled,
if the wife of the president is involved in a scandal.
Big business studies every move which may express its true personality. It seeks to tell the public, in all appropriate
ways,—by the direct advertising message and by the subtlest esthetic suggestion—the quality of the goods or
services which it has to offer. A store which seeks a large sales volume in cheap goods will preach prices day in and day
out, concentrating its whole appeal on the ways in which it can save money for its clients. But a store seeking a high
margin of profit on individual sales would try to associate itself with the distinguished and the elegant, whether by an
exhibition of old masters or through the social activities of the owner's wife.
The public relations activities of a business cannot be a protective coloring to hide its real aims. It is bad business
as well as bad morals to feature exclusively a few high-class articles, when the main stock is of medium grade or cheap,
for the general impression given is a false one. A sound public relations policy will not attempt to stampede the public
with exaggerated claims and false pretenses, but to interpret the individual business vividly and truly through every avenue
that leads to public opinion. The New York Central Railroad has for decades sought to appeal to the public not only on the
basis of the speed and safety of its trains, but also on the basis of their elegance and comfort. It is appropriate that
the corporation should have been personified to the general public in the person of so suave and ingratiating a gentleman
as Chauncey M. Depew—an ideal window dressing for such an enterprise.
While the concrete recommendations of the public relations counsel may vary infinitely according to individual circumstances,
his general plan of work may be reduced to two types, which I might term continuous interpretation and dramatization by
highspotting. The two may be alternative or may be pursued concurrently.
Continuous interpretation is achieved by trying to control every approach to the public mind in such a manner that the public
receives the desired impression, often without being conscious of it. High-spotting, on the other hand, vividly seizes the
attention of the public and fixes it upon some detail or aspect which is typical of the entire enterprise. When a real estate
corporation which is erecting a tall office building makes it ten feet taller than the highest sky-scraper in existence,
that is dramatization.
Which method is indicated, or whether
both be indicated concurrently, can be determined only after a full study of objectives and specific possibilities.
Another interesting case of focusing public attention on the virtues of a product
was shown in the case of gelatine. Its advantages in increasing the digestibility and nutritional value of milk were proven
in the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research. The suggestion was made and carried out that to further this knowledge,
gelatine be used by certain hospitals and school systems, to be tested out there. The favorable results of such tests were
then projected to other leaders in the field with the result that they followed that group leadership and utilized gelatine
for the scientific purposes which had been proven to be sound at the research institution. The idea carried momentum.
The tendency of big business is to get bigger. Through mergers and monopolies
it is constantly increasing the number of persons with whom it is in direct contact. All this has intensified and multiplied
the public relationships of business.
are of many kinds. There is a responsibility to the stockholders—numbering perhaps five persons or five hundred thousand—who
have entrusted their money to the concern and have the right to know how the money is being used. A concern which is
fully aware of its responsibility toward its stockholders, will furnish them with frequent letters urging them to use the
product in which their money is invested, and use their influence to promote its sale. It has a responsibility toward the
dealer which it may express by inviting him, at its expense, to visit the home factory. It has a responsibility toward the
industry as a whole which should restrain it from making exaggerated and unfair selling claims. It has a responsibility
toward the retailer, and will see to it that its salesmen express the quality of the product which they have to sell. There
is a responsibility toward the consumer, who is impressed by a clean and well managed factory, open to his inspection. And
the general public, apart from its function as potential consumer, is influenced in its attitude toward the concern by what
it knows of that concern's financial dealings, its labor policy, even by the livableness of the houses in which its employees
dwell. There is no detail too trivial to influence the public in a favorable or unfavorable sense. The personality of the
president may be a matter of importance, for he perhaps dramatizes the whole concern to the public mind. It may be very
important to what charities he contributes, in what civic societies he holds office. If he is a leader in his industry,
the public may demand that he be a leader in his community. The business man has become a responsible member of the social
group. It is not a question of ballyhoo, of creating a picturesque fiction for public consumption. It is merely a question
of finding the appropriate modes of expressing the personality that is to be dramatized. Some business men can be their
own best public relations counsel. But in the majority of cases knowledge of the public mind and of the ways in which it
will react to an appeal, is a specialized function which must be undertaken by the professional expert.
Big business, I believe, is realizing this more and more. It is increasingly
availing itself of the services of the specialist in public relations (whatever may be the title accorded him). And it is
my conviction that as big business becomes bigger the need for expert manipulation of its innumerable contacts with the
public will become greater.
One reason why the public relations
of a business are frequently placed in the hands of an outside expert, instead of being confided to an officer of the company,
is the fact that the correct approach to a problem may be indirect. For example, when the luggage industry attempted to
solve some of its problems by a public relations policy, it was realized that the attitude of railroads, of steamship companies,
and of foreign government-owned railroads was an important factor in the handling of luggage.
If a railroad and a baggage man, for their own interest, can be educated to handle baggage
with more facility and promptness, with less damage to the baggage, and less inconvenience to the passenger; if the steamship
company lets down, in its own interests, its restrictions on luggage; if the foreign government eases up on its baggage costs
and transportation in order to further tourist travel; then the luggage manufacturers will profit.
The problem then, to increase the sale of their luggage, was to have these and other forces
come over to their point of view. Hence the public relations campaign was directed not to the public, who were the ultimate
consumers, but to these other elements.
Also, if the luggage
manufacturer can educate the general public on what to wear on trips and when to wear it, he may be increasing the sale
of men's and women's clothing, but he will, at the same time, be increasing the sale of his luggage.
Propaganda, since it goes to basic causes, can very often be most effective
through the manner of its introduction. A campaign against unhealthy cosmetics might be waged by fighting for a return to
the wash-cloth and soap—a fight that very logically might be taken up by health officials all over the country, who
would urge the return to the salutary and helpful wash-cloth and soap, instead of cosmetics.
The development of public opinion for a cause or line of socially constructive action may
very often be the result of a desire on the part of the propagandist to meet successfully his own problem which the socially
constructive cause would further. And by doing so he is actually fulfilling a social purpose in the broadest sense.
The soundness of a public relations policy was likewise shown in the case of
a shoe manufacturer who made service shoes for patrolmen, firemen, letter carriers, and men in similar occupations. He realized
that if he could make acceptable the idea that men in such work ought to be well-shod, he would sell more shoes and at the
same time further the efficiency of the men.
as part of his business, a foot protection bureau. This bureau disseminated scientifically accurate information on the proper
care of the feet, principles which the manufacturer had incorporated in the construction of the shoes. The result was
that civic bodies, police chiefs, fire chiefs, and others interested in the welfare and comfort of their men, furthered
the ideas his product stood for and the product itself, with the consequent effect that more of his shoes were sold more
The application of this principle of a common
denominator of interest between the object that is sold and the public good will can be carried to infinite degrees.
"It matters not how much capital you may have, how fair the rates may
be, how favorable the conditions of service, if you haven't behind you a sympathetic public opinion, you are bound to fail."
This is the opinion of Samuel Insull, one the foremost traction magnates of the country. And the late Judge Gary, of the
United States Steel Corporation, expressed the same idea when he said: "Once you have the good will of the general
public, you can go ahead in the work of constructive expansion. Too often many try to discount this vague and intangible
element. That way lies destruction."
is no longer inclined to be unfavorable to the large business merger. It resents the censorship of business by the Federal
Trade Commission. It has broken down the anti-trust laws where it thinks they hinder economic development. It backs great
trusts and mergers which it excoriated a decade ago. The government now permits large aggregations of producing and distributing
units, as evidenced by mergers among railroads and other public utilities, because representative government reflects public
opinion. Public opinion itself fosters the growth of mammoth industrial enterprises. In the opinion of millions of small
investors, mergers and trusts are friendly giants and not ogres, because of the economies, mainly due to quantity production,
which they have effected, and can pass on to the consumer.
This result has been, to a great extent, obtained by a deliberate use of propaganda in its broadest sense. It was obtained
not only by modifying the opinion of the public, as the governments modified and marshaled the opinion of their publics
during the war, but often by modifying the business concern itself. A cement company may work with road commissions gratuitously
to maintain testing laboratories in order to insure the best-quality roads to the public. A gas company maintains a free
school of cookery.
But it would be rash and unreasonable
to take it for granted that because public opinion has come over to the side of big business, it will always remain there.
Only recently, Prof. W. Z. Ripley of Harvard University, one of the foremost national authorities on business organization
and practice, exposed certain aspects of big business which tended to undermine public confidence in large corporations.
He pointed out that the stockholders' supposed voting power is often illusory; that annual financial statements are sometimes
so brief and summary that to the man in the street they are downright misleading; that the extension of the system of non-voting
shares often places the effective control of corporations and their finances in the hands of a small clique of stockholders;
and that some corporations refuse to give out sufficient information to permit the public to know the true condition of
Furthermore, no matter how favorably disposed
the public may be toward big business in general, the utilities are always fair game for public discontent and need to
maintain good will with the greatest care and watchfulness. These and other corporations of a semi-public character will
always have to face a demand for government or municipal ownership if such attacks as those of Professor Ripley are continued
and are, in the public's opinion, justified, unless conditions are changed and care is taken to maintain the contact with
the public at all points of their corporate existence.
The public relations counsel should anticipate such trends of public opinion and advise on how to avert them, either by
convincing the public that its fears or prejudices are unjustified, or in certain cases by modifying the action of the client
to the extent necessary to remove the cause of complaint. In such a case public opinion might be surveyed and the points
of irreducible opposition discovered. The aspects of the situation which are susceptible of logical explanation; to what
extent the criticism or prejudice is a habitual emotional reaction and what factors are dominated by accepted cliches, might
be disclosed. In each instance he would advise some action or modification of policy calculated to make the readjustment.
While government ownership is in most instances only varyingly
a remote possibility, public ownership of big business through the increasing popular investment in stocks and bonds, is
becoming more and more a fact. The importance of public relations from this standpoint is to be judged by the fact that
practically all prosperous corporations expect at some time to enlarge operations, and will need to float new stock or
bond issues. The success of such issues depends upon the general record of the concern in the business world, and also upon
the good will which it has been able to create in the general public. When the Victor Talking Machine Company was recently
offered to the public, millions of dollars' worth of stock were sold overnight. On the other hand, there are certain companies
which, although they are financially sound and commercially prosperous, would be unable to float a large stock issue, because
public opinion is not conscious of them, or has some unanalyzed prejudice against them.
To such an extent is the successful floating of stocks and bonds dependent upon the public
favor that the success of a new merger may stand or fall upon the public acceptance which is created for it. A merger may
bring into existence huge new resources, and these resources, perhaps amounting to millions of dollars in a single operation,
can often fairly be said to have been created by the expert manipulation of public opinion. It must be repeated that I
am not speaking of artificial value given to a stock by dishonest propaganda or stock manipulation, but of the real economic
values which are created when genuine public acceptance is gained for an industrial enterprise and becomes a real partner
The growth of big business is so rapid that in some
lines ownership is more international than national. It is necessary to reach ever larger groups of people if modern industry
and commerce are to be financed. Americans have purchased billions of dollars of foreign industrial securities since the
war, and Europeans own, it is estimated, between one and two billion dollars' worth of ours. In each case public acceptance
must be obtained for the issue and the enterprise behind it.
Public loans, state or municipal, to foreign countries depend upon the good will which those countries have been able to
create for themselves here. An attempted issue by an east European country is now faring badly largely because of unfavorable
public reaction to the behavior of members of its ruling family. But other countries have no difficulty in placing any
issue because the public is already convinced of the prosperity of these nations and the stability of their governments.
The new technique of public relations counsel is serving
a very useful purpose in business by acting as a complement to legitimate advertisers and advertising in helping to break
down unfair competitive exaggerated and overemphatic advertising by reaching the public with the truth through other channels
than advertising. Where two competitors in a field are fighting each other with this type of advertising, they are undermining
that particular industry to a point where the public may lose confidence in the whole industry. The only way to combat such
unethical methods, is for ethical members of the industry to use the weapon of propaganda in order to bring out the basic
truths of the situation.
Take the case of tooth paste,
for instance. Here is a highly competitive field in which the preponderance of public acceptance of one product over another
can very legitimately rest in inherent values. However, what has happened in this field?
One or two of the large manufacturers have asserted advantages for their tooth pastes which
no single tooth paste discovered up to the present time can possibly have. The competing manufacturer is put in the position
either of overemphasizing an already exaggerated emphasis or of letting the overemphasis of his competitor take away his
markets. He turns to the weapon of propaganda which can effectively, through various channels of approach to the public—the
dental clinics, the schools, the women's clubs, the medical colleges, the dental press and even the daily press—bring
to the public the truth of what a tooth paste can do. This will, of course, have its effect in making the honestly advertised
tooth paste get to its real public.
Propaganda is potent
in meeting unethical or unfair advertising. Effective advertising has become more costly than ever before. Years ago, when
the country was smaller and there was no tremendous advertising machinery, it was comparatively easy to get country-wide
recognition for a product. A corps of traveling salesmen might persuade the retailers, with a few cigars and a repertory
of funny stories, to display and recommend their article on a nationwide scale. To-day, a small industry is swamped unless
it can find appropriate and relatively inexpensive means of making known the special virtues of its product, while larger
industries have sought to overcome the difficulty by cooperative advertising, in which associations of industries compete
with other associations.
Mass advertising has produced
new kinds of competition. Competition between rival products in the same line is, of course, as old as economic life itself.
In recent years much has been said of the new competition, we have discussed it in a previous chapter, between one group
of products and another. Stone competes against wood for building; linoleum against carpets; oranges against apples; tin
against asbestos for roofing.
This type of competition
has been humorously illustrated by Mr. O. H. Cheney, Vice-President of the American Exchange and Irving Trust Company of
New York, in a speech before the Chicago Business Secretaries Forum.
"Do you represent the millinery trades?" said Mr. Cheney. "The man at your side may serve the fur industry,
and by promoting the style of big fur collars on women's coats he is ruining the hat business by forcing women to wear small
and inexpensive hats. You may be interested in the ankles of the fair sex—I mean, you may represent the silk hosiery
industry. You have two brave rivals who are ready to fight to the death—to spend millions in the fight —for
the glory of those ankles—the leather industry, which has suffered from the low-shoe vogue, and the fabrics manufacturers,
who yearn for the good old days when skirts were skirts.
"If you represent the plumbing and heating business, you are the mortal enemy of the textile industry, because warmer
homes mean lighter clothes. If you represent the printers, how can you shake hands with the radio equipment man? . . .
"These are really only obvious forms of what I have
called the new competition. The old competition was that between the members of each trade organization. One phase of the
new competition is that between the trade associations themselves—between you gentlemen who represent those industries.
Inter-commodity competition is the new competition between products used alternatively for the same purpose. Inter-industrial
competition is the new competition between apparently unrelated industries which affect each other or between such industries
as compete for the consumer's dollar—and that means practically all industries. . . .
"Inter-commodity competition is, of course, the most spectacular of all. It is the
one which seems most of all to have caught the business imagination of the country. More and more business men are beginning
to appreciate what inter-commodity competition means to them. More and more they are calling upon their trade associations
to help them— because inter-commodity competition cannot be fought single-handed.
"Take the great war on the dining-room table, for instance. Three times a day practically
every diningroom table in the country is the scene of a fierce battle in the new competition. Shall we have prunes for breakfast?
No, cry the embattled orange-growers and the massed legions of pineapple canners. Shall we eat sauerkraut? Why not eat green
olives? is the answer of the Spaniards. Eat macaroni as a change from potatoes, says one advertiser—and will the
potato growers take this challenge lying down?
doctors and dietitians tell us that a normal hard-working man needs only about two or three thousand calories of food a
day. A banker, I suppose, needs a little less. But what am I to do? The fruit growers, the wheat raisers, the meat packers,
the milk producers, the fishermen—all want me to eat more of their products—and are spending millions of dollars
a year to convince me. Am I to eat to the point of exhaustion, or am I to obey the doctor and let the farmer and the food
packer and the retailer go broke! Am I to balance my diet in proportion to the advertising appropriations of the various
producers? Or am I to balance my diet scientifically and let those who overproduce go bankrupt? The new competition is probably
keenest in the food industries because there we have a very real limitation on what we can consume—in spite of higher
incomes and higher living standards, we cannot eat more than we can eat."
I believe that competition in the future will not be only an advertising competition between individual products or between
big associations, but that it will in addition be a competition of propaganda. The business man and advertising man is realizing
that he must not discard entirely the methods of Barnum in reaching the public. An example in the annals of George Harrison
Phelps, of the successful utilization of this type of appeal was the nation-wide hook-up which announced the launching of
the Dodge Victory Six car.
Millions of people, it is estimated,
listened in to this program broadcast over 47 stations. The expense was more than $60,000. The arrangements involved an
additional telephonic hook-up of 20,000 miles of wire, and included transmission from Los Angeles, Chicago, Detroit, New
Orleans, and New York. Al Jolson did his bit from New Orleans, Will Rogers from Beverly Hills, Fred and Dorothy Stone from
Chicago, and Paul Whiteman from New York, at an aggregate artists' fee of $25,000. And there was included a four-minute
address by the president of Dodge Brothers announcing the new car, which gave him access in four minutes to an estimated
audience of thirty million Americans, the largest number, unquestionably, ever to concentrate their attention on a given
commercial product at a given moment. It was a sugar-coated sales message.
Modern sales technicians will object: "What you say of this method of appeal is true. But it increases the cost of
getting the manufacturer's message across. The modern tendency has been to reduce this cost (for example, the elimination
of premiums) and concentrate on getting full efficiency from the advertising expenditure. If you hire a Galli-Curci to sing
for bacon you increase the cost of the bacon by the amount of her very large fee. Her voice adds nothing to the product
but it adds to its cost."
Undoubtedly. But all modes
of sales appeal require the spending of money to make the appeal attractive. The advertiser in print adds to the cost of
his message by the use of pictures or by the cost of getting distinguished endorsements.
There is another kind of difficulty, created in the process of big business getting bigger,
which calls for new modes of establishing contact with the public. Quantity production offers a standardized product the
cost of which tends to diminish with the quantity sold. If low price is the only basis of competition with rival products,
similarly produced, there ensues a cut-throat competition which can end only by taking all the profit and incentive out
of the industry.
The logical way out of this dilemma is
for the manufacturer to develop some sales appeal other than mere cheapness, to give the product, in the public mind, some
other attraction, some idea that will modify the product slightly, some element of originality that will distinguish it
from products in the same line. Thus, a manufacturer of typewriters paints his machines in cheerful hues. These special
types of appeal can be popularized by the manipulation of the principles familiar to the propagandist— the principles
of gregariousness, obedience to authority, emulation, and the like. A minor element can be made to assume economic importance
by being established in the public mind as a matter of style. Mass production can be split up. Big business will still
leave room for small business. Next to a huge department store there may be located a tiny specialty shop which makes a very
The problem of bringing large hats back into
fashion was undertaken by a propagandist. The millinery industry two years ago was menaced by the prevalence of the simple
felt hat which was crowding out the manufacture of all other kinds of hats and hat ornaments. It was found that hats could
roughly be classified in six types. It was found too that four groups might help to change hat fashions: the society leader,
the style expert, the fashion editor and writer, the artist who might give artistic approval to the styles, and beautiful
mannequins. The problem, then, was to bring these groups together before an audience of hat buyers.
A committee of prominent artists was organized to choose the most beautiful
girls in New York to wear, in a series of tableaux, the most beautiful hats in the style classifications, at a fashion fete
at a leading hotel.
A committee was formed of distinguished
American women who, on the basis of their interest in the development of an American industry, were willing to add the authority
of their names to the idea. A style committee was formed of editors of fashion magazines and other prominent fashion authorities
who were willing to support the idea. The girls in their lovely hats and costumes paraded on the running-board before an
audience of the entire trade.
The news of the event affected
the buying habits not only of the onlookers, but also of the women throughout the country. The story of the event was flashed
to the consumer by her newspaper as well as by the advertisements of her favorite store. Broadsides went to the millinery
buyer from the manufacturer. One manufacturer stated that whereas before the show he had not sold any large trimmed hats,
after it he had sold thousands.
Often the public relations
counsel is called in to handle an emergency situation. A false rumor, for instance, may occasion an enormous loss in prestige
and money if not handled promptly and effectively. An incident such as the one described in the New York American of Friday,
May 21, 1926, shows what the lack of proper technical handling of public relations might result in.
A clipping from the Journal of Commerce of April 4, 1925, is reproduced here as an interesting example of a method to counteract
a false rumor:
$1,000,000 LOST BY FALSE RUMOR ON HUDSON
STOCK Hudson Motor Company stock fluctuated widely around noon
yesterday and losses estimated at $500,000 to $1,000,000 were suffered as a result of the widespread flotation of false
news regarding dividend action.
The directors met in Detroit at 12:30, New York time, to act on a dividend. Almost immediately a false report that only the
regular dividend had been declared was circulated.
At 12:46 the Dow, Jones & Co. ticker service received the report
from the Stock Exchange firm and its publication resulted in further drop in the stock.
Shortly after 1 o'clock the ticker services received official
news that the dividend had been increased and a 20 per cent stock distribution authorized. They rushed the correct news
out on their tickers and Hudson stock immediately jumped more than 6 points.
BEECH-NUT HEAD HOME TOWN GUEST
Signally Honored by
Communities of Mohawk Valley
The Journal of Commerce) CANAJOHARIE, N. Y., April 3.—To-day was
'Beech-Nut Day' in this town; in fact, for the whole Mohawk Valley. Business men and practically the whole community of
this region joined in a personal testimonial to Bartlett Arkell of New York City, president of the Beech-Nut Packing Company
of this city, in honor of his firm refusal to consider selling his company to other financial interests to move elsewhere.
When Mr. Arkell publicly denied recent
rumors that he was to sell his company to the Postum Cereal Company for $17,000,000, which would have resulted in taking
the industry from its birthplace, he did so in terms conspicuously loyal to his boyhood home, which he has built up into
a prosperous industrial community through thirty years' management of his Beech-Nut Company.
He absolutely controls the business and flatly, stated that he would never
sell it during his lifetime 'to any one at any price,' since it would be disloyal to his friends and fellow workers. And
the whole Mohawk Valley spontaneously decided that such spirit deserved public recognition. Hence, to-day's festivities.
More than 3,000 people participated,
headed by a committee comprising W. J. Roser, chairman; B. F. Spraker, H. V. Bush, B. F. Diefendorf and J. H. Cook. They
were backed by the Canajoharie and the Mohawk Valley Chambers of Business Men's Associations.
Of course, every one realized after this that there was no truth in the rumor that
the Beech-Nut Company was in the market. A denial would not have carried as much conviction.
Amusement, too, is a business—one of the largest in America. It was the amusement
business—first the circus and the medicine show, then the theater— which taught the rudiments of advertising
to industry and commerce. The latter adopted the ballyhoo of the show business. But under the stress of practical experience
it adapted and refined these crude advertising methods to the precise ends it sought to obtain. The theater has, in its
turn, learned from business, and has refined its publicity methods to the point where the old stentorian methods are in
The modern publicity director of a theater
syndicate or a motion picture trust is a business man, responsible for the security of tens or hundreds of millions of dollars
of invested capital. He cannot afford to be a stunt artist or a free-lance adventurer in publicity. He must know his public
accurately and modify its thoughts and actions by means of the methods which the amusement world has learned from its old
pupil, big business. As public knowledge increases and public taste improves, business must be ready to meet them halfway.
Modern business must have its finger continuously on the
public pulse. It must understand the changes in the public mind and be prepared to interpret itself fairly and eloquently
to changing opinion.
PROPAGANDA AND POLITICAL LEADERSHIP
THE great political problem in our modern democracy is how to induce our leaders to lead.
The dogma that the voice of the people is the voice of God tends to make elected persons the will-less servants of their
constituents. This is undoubtedly part cause of the political sterility of which certain American critics constantly complain.
No serious sociologist any longer believes that the voice
of the people expresses any divine or specially wise and lofty idea. The voice of the people expresses the mind of the people,
and that mind is made up for it by the group leaders in whom it believes and by those persons who understand the manipulation
of public opinion. It is composed of inherited prejudices and symbols and cliches and verbal formulas supplied to them by
Fortunately, the sincere and gifted politician is able, by the instrument
of propaganda, to mold and form the will of the people.
Disraeli cynically expressed the dilemma, when he said: "I must follow the people. Am I not their leader?" He
might have added: "I must lead the people. Am I not their servant?"
Unfortunately, the methods of our contemporary politicians, in dealing with the public, are as archaic and ineffective as
the advertising methods of business in 1900 would be to-day. While politics was the first important department of American
life to use propaganda on a large scale, it has been the slowest in modifying its propaganda methods to meet the changed
conditions of the public mind. American business first learned from politics the methods of appealing to the broad public.
But it continually improved those methods in the course of its competitive struggle, while politics clung to the old formulas.
The political apathy of the average voter, of which we
hear so much, is undoubtedly due to the fact that the politician does not know how to meet the conditions of the public
mind. He cannot dramatize himself and his platform in terms which have real meaning to the public. Acting on the fallacy
that the leader must slavishly follow, he deprives his campaign of all dramatic interest. An automaton cannot arouse the
public interest. A leader, a fighter, a dictator, can. But, given our present political conditions under which every office
seeker must cater to the vote of the masses, the only means by which the born leader can lead is the expert use of propaganda.
Whether in the problem of getting elected to office or
in the problem of interpreting and popularizing new issues, or in the problem of making the day-to-day administration of
public affairs a vital part of the community life, the use of propaganda, carefully adjusted to the mentality of the masses,
is an essential adjunct of political life.
business man to-day apes the politician. He has adopted the glitter and the ballyhoo of the campaign. He has set up all the
side shows. He has annual dinners that are a compendium of speeches, flags, bombast, stateliness, pseudo-democracy slightly
tinged with paternalism. On occasion he doles out honors to employees, much as the republic of classic times rewarded its
But these are merely the side shows, the
drums, of big business, by which it builds up an image of public service, and of honorary service. This is but one of the
methods by which business stimulates loyal enthusiasms on the part of directors, the workers, the stockholders and the consumer
public. It is one of the methods by which big business performs its function of making and selling products to the public.
The real work and campaign of business consists of intensive study of the public, the manufacture of products based on this
study, and exhaustive use of every means of reaching the public.
Political campaigns to-day are all side shows, all honors, all bombast, glitter, and speeches. These are for the most part
unrelated to the main business of studying the public scientifically, of supplying the public with party, candidate, platform,
and performance, and selling the public these ideas and products.
Politics was the first big business in America. Therefore there is a good deal of irony in the fact that business has learned
everything that politics has had to teach, but that politics has failed to learn very much from business methods of mass
distribution of ideas and products.
Emily Newell Blair
has recounted in the Independent a typical instance of the waste of effort and money in a political campaign, a week's speaking
tour in which she herself took part. She estimates that on a five-day trip covering nearly a thousand miles she and the
United States Senator with whom she was making political speeches addressed no more than 1,105 persons whose votes might
conceivably have been changed as a result of their efforts. The cost of this appeal to these voters she estimates (calculating
the value of the time spent on a very moderate basis) as $15.27 for each vote which might have been changed as a result
of the campaign.
This, she says, was a "drive for
votes, just as an Ivory Soap advertising campaign is a drive for sales." But, she asks, "what would a company
executive say to a sales manager who sent a high-priced speaker to describe his product to less than 1,200 people at a cost
of $15.27 for each possible buyer?" She finds it "amazing that the very men who make their millions out of cleverly
devised drives for soap and bonds and cars will turn around and give large contributions to be expended for vote-getting
in an utterly inefficient and antiquated fashion."
It is, indeed, incomprehensible that politicians do not make use of the elaborate business methods that industry has built
up. Because a politician knows political strategy, can develop campaign issues, can devise strong planks for platforms and
envisage broad policies, it does not follow that he can be given the responsibility of selling ideas to a public as large
as that of the United States.
The politician understands
the public. He knows what the public wants and what the public will accept. But the politician is not necessarily a general
sales manager, a public relations counsel, or a man who knows how to secure mass distribution of ideas.
Obviously, an occasional political leader may be capable of combining every
feature of leadership, just as in business there are certain brilliant industrial leaders who are financiers, factory directors,
engineers, sales managers and public relations counsel all rolled into one.
Big business is conducted on the principle that it must prepare its policies carefully, and that in selling an idea to the
large buying public of America, it must proceed according to broad plans. The political strategist must do likewise. The
entire campaign should be worked out according to broad basic plans. Platforms, planks, pledges, budgets, activities, personalities,
must be as carefully studied, apportioned and used as they are when big business desires to get what it wants from the public.
The first step in a political campaign is to determine
on the objectives, and to express them exceedingly well in the current form—that is, as a platform. In devising the
platform the leader should be sure that it is an honest platform. Campaign pledges and promises should not be lightly considered
by the public, and they ought to carry something of the guarantee principle and money-back policy that an honorable business
institution carries with the sale of its goods. The public has lost faith in campaign promotion work. It does not say that
politicians are dishonorable, but it does say that campaign pledges are written on the sand. Here then is one fact of public
opinion of which the party that wishes to be successful might well take cognizance.
To aid in the preparation of the platform there should be made as nearly scientific an analysis as possible of the public
and of the needs of the public. A survey of public desires and demands would come to the aid of the political strategist
whose business it is to make a proposed plan of the activities of the parties and its elected officials during the coming
terms of office.
A big business that wants to sell a product
to the public surveys and analyzes its market before it takes a single step either to make or to sell the product. If one
section of the community is absolutely sold to the idea of this product, no money is wasted in reselling it to it. If, on
the other hand, another section of the public is irrevocably committed to another product, no money is wasted on a lost
cause. Very often the analysis is the cause of basic changes and improvements in the product itself, as well as an index
of how it is to be presented. So carefully is this analysis of markets and sales made that when a company makes out its
sales budget for the year, it subdivides the circulations of the various magazines and newspapers it uses in advertising
and calculates with a fair degree of accuracy how many times a section of that population is subjected to the appeal of
the company. It knows approximately to what extent a national campaign duplicates and repeats the emphasis of a local campaign
As in the business field, the expenses of the
political campaign should be budgeted. A large business to-day knows exactly how much money it is going to spend on propaganda
during the next year or years. It knows that a certain percentage of its gross receipts will be given over to advertising—newspaper,
magazine, outdoor and poster; a certain percentage to circularization and sales promotion—such as house organs and
dealer aids; and a certain percentage must go to the supervising salesmen who travel around the country to infuse extra
stimulus in the local sales campaign.
A political campaign
should be similarly budgeted. The first question which should be decided is the amount of money that should be raised for
the campaign. This decision can be reached by a careful analysis of campaign costs. There is enough precedent in business
procedure to enable experts to work this out accurately. Then the second question of importance is the manner in which money
should be raised.
It is obvious that politics would gain
much in prestige if the money-raising campaign were conducted candidly and publicly, like the campaigns for the war funds.
Charity drives might be made excellent models for political funds drives. The elimination of the little black bag element
in politics would raise the entire prestige of politics in America, and the public interest would be infinitely greater
if the actual participation occurred earlier and more constructively in the campaign.
Again, as in the business field, there should be a clear decision as to how the money is to be spent. This should be done
according to the most careful and exact budgeting, wherein every step in the campaign is given its proportionate importance,
and the funds allotted accordingly. Advertising in newspapers and periodicals, posters and street banners, the exploitation
of personalities in motion pictures, in speeches and lectures and meetings, spectacular events and all forms of propaganda
should be considered proportionately according to the budget, and should always be coordinated with the whole plan. Certain
expenditures may be warranted if they represent a small proportion of the budget and may be totally unwarranted if they
make up a large proportion of the budget.
In the same
way the emotions by which the public is appealed to may be made part of the broad plan of the campaign. Unrelated emotions
become maudlin and sentimental too easily, are often costly, and too often waste effort because the idea is not part of
the conscious and coherent whole.
Big business has realized
that it must use as many of the basic emotions as possible. The politician, however, has used the emotions aroused by words
To appeal to the emotions of the public
in a political campaign is sound—in fact it is an indispensable part of the campaign. But the emotional content must—
(a) coincide in every way with the broad basic plans of the campaign and all its minor details;
(b) be adapted to the many groups of the public at which
it is to be aimed; and
(c) conform to the media of the
distribution of ideas.
The emotions of oratory
have been worn down through long years of overuse. Parades, mass meetings, and the like are successful when the public has
a frenzied emotional interest in the event. The candidate who takes babies on his lap, and has his photograph taken, is
doing a wise thing emotionally, if this act epitomizes a definite plank in his platform. Kissing babies, if it is worth
anything, must be used as a symbol for a baby policy and it must be synchronized with a plank in the platform. But the haphazard
staging of emotional events without regard to their value as part of the whole campaign, is a waste of effort, just as
it would be a waste of effort for the manufacturer of hockey skates to advertise a picture of a church surrounded by spring
foliage. It is true that the church appeals to our religious impulses and that everybody loves the spring, but these impulses
do not help to sell the idea that hockey skates are amusing, helpful, or increase the general enjoyment of life for the
Present-day politics places emphasis on personality.
An entire party, a platform, an international policy is sold to the public, or is not sold, on the basis of the intangible
element of personality. A charming candidate is the alchemist's secret that can transmute a prosaic platform into the gold
of votes. Helpful as is a candidate who for some reason has caught the imagination of the country, the party and its aims
are certainly more important than the personality of the candidate. Not personality, but the ability of the candidate to
carry out the party's program adequately, and the program itself should be emphasized in a sound campaign plan. Even Henry
Ford, the most picturesque personality in business in America to-day, has become known through his product, and not his
product through him.
It is essential for the campaign manager
to educate the emotions in terms of groups. The public is not made up merely of Democrats and Republicans. People to-day
are largely uninterested in politics and their interest in the issues of the campaign must be secured by coordinating it
with their personal interests. The public is made up of interlocking groups —economic, social, religious, educational,
cultural, racial, collegiate, local, sports, and hundreds of others.
When President Coolidge invited actors for breakfast, he did so because he realized not only that actors were a group, but
that audiences, the large group of people who like amusements, who like people who amuse them, and who like people who can
be amused, ought to be aligned with him.
Maternity Bill was passed because the people who fought to secure its passage realized that mothers made up a group, that
educators made up a group, that physicians made up a group, that all these groups in turn influence other groups, and that
taken all together these groups were sufficiently strong and numerous to impress Congress with the fact that the people
at large wanted this bill to be made part of the national law.
The political campaign having defined its broad objects and its basic plans, having defined the group appeal which it must
use, must carefully allocate to each of the media at hand the work which it can do with maximum efficiency.
The media through which a political campaign may be brought home to the public
are numerous and fairly well defined. Events and activities must be created in order to put ideas into circulation, in these
channels, which are as varied as the means of human communication. Every object which presents pictures or words that the
public can see, everything that presents intelligible sounds, can be utilized in one way or another.
At present, the political campaigner uses for the greatest part the radio,
the press, the banquet hall, the mass meeting, the lecture platform, and the stump generally as a means for furthering his
ideas. But this is only a small part of what may be done. Actually there are infinitely more varied events that can be
created to dramatize the campaign, and to make people talk of it. Exhibitions, contests, institutes of politics, the cooperation
of educational institutions, the dramatic cooperation of groups which hitherto have not been drawn into active politics,
and many others may be made the vehicle for the presentation of ideas to the public.
But whatever is done must be synchronized accurately with all other forms of appeal to the public. News reaches the public
through the printed word— books, magazines, letters, posters, circulars and banners, newspapers; through pictures—photographs
and motion pictures; through the ear—lectures, speeches, band music, radio, campaign songs. All these must be employed
by the political party if it is to succeed. One method of appeal is merely one method of appeal and in this age wherein a
thousand movements and ideas are competing for public attention, one dare not put all one's eggs into one basket.
It is understood that the methods of propaganda can be effective only with
the voter who makes up his own mind on the basis of his group prejudices and desires. Where specific allegiances and loyalties
exist, as in the case of boss leadership, these loyalties will operate to nullify the free will of the voter. In this close
relation between the boss and his constituents lies, of course, the strength of his position in politics.
It is not necessary for the politician to be the slave of the public's group
prejudices, if he can learn how to mold the mind of the voters in conformity with his own ideas of public welfare and public
service. The important thing for the statesman of our age is not so much to know how to please the public, but to know
how to sway the public. In theory, this education might be done by means of learned pamphlets explaining the intricacies
of public questions. In actual fact, it can be done only by meeting the conditions of the public mind, by creating circumstances
which set up trains of thought, by dramatizing personalities, by establishing contact with the group leaders who control
the opinions of their publics.
But campaigning is only
an incident in political life. The process of government is continuous. And the expert use of propaganda is more useful
and fundamental, although less striking, as an aid to democratic administration, than as an aid to vote getting.
Good government can be sold to a community just as any other commodity can
be sold. I often wonder whether the politicians of the future, who are responsible for maintaining the prestige and effectiveness
of their party, will not endeavor to train politicians who are at the same time propagandists. I talked recently with George
Olvany. He said that a certain number of Princeton men were joining Tammany Hall. If I were in his place I should have
taken some of my brightest young men and set them to work for Broadway theatrical productions or apprenticed them as assistants
to professional propagandists before recruiting them to the service of the party.
One reason, perhaps, why the politician to-day is slow to take up methods which are a commonplace in business life is that
he has such ready entry to the media of communication on which his power depends.
The newspaper man looks to him for news. And by his power of giving or withholding information the politician can often
effectively censor political news. But being dependent, every day of the year and for year after year, upon certain politicians
for news, the newspaper reporters are obliged to work in harmony with their news sources.
The political leader must be a creator of circumstances, not only a creature of mechanical
processes of stereotyping and rubber stamping.
suppose that he is campaigning on a lowtariff platform. He may use the modern mechanism of the radio to spread his views,
but he will almost certainly use the psychological method of approach which was old in Andrew Jackson's day, and which
business has largely discarded. He will say over the radio: "Vote for me and low tariff, because the high tariff increases
the cost of the things you buy." He may, it is true, have the great advantage of being able to speak by radio directly
to fifty million listeners. But he is making an old-fashioned approach. He is arguing with them. He is assaulting, single-handed,
the resistance of inertia.
If he were a propagandist,
on the other hand, although he would still use the radio, he would use it as one instrument of a well-planned strategy.
Since he is campaigning on the issue of a low tariff, he not merely would tell people that the high tariff increases the
cost of the things they buy, but would create circumstances which would make his contention dramatic and self-evident. He
would perhaps stage a low-tariff exhibition simultaneously in twenty cities, with exhibits illustrating the additional cost
due to the tariff in force. He would see that these exhibitions were ceremoniously inaugurated by prominent men and women
who were interested in a low tariff apart from any interest in his personal political fortunes. He would have groups, whose
interests were especially affected by the high cost of living, institute an agitation for lower schedules. He would dramatize
the issue, perhaps by having prominent men boycott woolen clothes, and go to important functions in cotton suits, until
the wool schedule was reduced. He might get the opinion of social workers as to whether the high cost of wool endangers
the health of the poor in winter.
In whatever ways he
dramatized the issue, the attention of the public would be attracted to the question before he addressed them personally.
Then, when he spoke to his millions of listeners on the radio, he would not be seeking to force an argument down the throats
of a public thinking of other things and annoyed by another demand on its attention; on the contrary, he would be answering
the spontaneous questions and expressing the emotional demands of a public already keyed to a certain pitch of interest
in the subject.
The importance of taking the entire world
public into consideration before planning an important event is shown by the wise action of Thomas Masaryk, then Provisional
President, now President of the Republic of Czecho-Slovakia.
Czecho-Slovakia officially became a free state on Monday, October 28, 1918, instead of Sunday, October 27, 1918, because
Professor Masaryk realized that the people of the world would receive more information and would be more receptive to, the
announcement of the republic's freedom on a Monday morning than on a Sunday, because the press would have more space to
devote to it on Monday morning.
Discussing the matter with
me before he made the announcement, Professor Masaryk said, "I would be making history for the cables if I changed
the date of Czecho-Slovakia's birth as a free nation." Cables make history and so the date was changed.
This incident illustrates the importance of technique in the new propaganda.
It will be objected, of course, that propaganda will tend
to defeat itself as its mechanism becomes obvious to the public. My opinion is that it will not. The only propaganda which
will ever tend to weaken itself as the world becomes more sophisticated and intelligent, is propaganda that is untrue or
Again, the objection is raised that propaganda
is utilized to manufacture our leading political personalities. It is asked whether, in fact, the leader makes propaganda,
or whether propaganda makes the leader. There is a widespread impression that a good press agent can puff up a nobody into
a great man.
The answer is the same as that made to the
old query as to whether the newspaper makes public opinion or whether public opinion makes the newspaper. There has to be
fertile ground for the leader and the idea to fall on. But the leader also has to have some vital seed to sow. To use another
figure, a mutual need has to exist before either can become positively effective. Propaganda is of no use to the politician
unless he has something to say which the public, consciously or unconsciously, wants to hear.
But even supposing that a certain propaganda is untrue or dishonest, we cannot on that account
reject the methods of propaganda as such. For propaganda in some form will always be used where leaders need to appeal to
The criticism is often made that
propaganda tends to make the President of the United States so important that he becomes not the President but the embodiment
of the idea of hero worship, not to say deity worship. I quite agree that this is so, but how are you going to stop a condition
which very accurately reflects the desires of a certain part of the public? The American people rightly senses the enormous
importance of the executive's office. If the public tends to make of the President a heroic symbol of that power, that is
not the fault of propaganda but lies in the very nature of the office and its relation to the people.
This condition, despite its somewhat irrational puffing up of the man to fit
the office, is perhaps still more sound than a condition in which the man utilizes no propaganda, or a propaganda not adapted
to its proper end. Note the example of the Prince of Wales. This young man reaped bales of clippings and little additional
glory from his American visit, merely because he was poorly advised. To the American public he became a well dressed, charming,
sportloving, dancing, perhaps frivolous youth. Nothing was done to add dignity and prestige to this impression until towards
the end of his stay he made a trip in the subway of New York. This sole venture into democracy and the serious business
of living as evidenced in the daily habits of workers, aroused new interest in the Prince. Had he been properly advised
he would have augmented this somewhat by such serious studies of American life as were made by another prince, Gustave
of Sweden. As a result of the lack of well directed propaganda, the Prince of Wales became in the eyes of the American people,
not the thing which he constitutionally is, a symbol of the unity of the British Empire, but part and parcel of sporting
Long Island and dancing beauties of the ballroom. Great Britain lost an invaluable opportunity to increase the good will
and understanding between the two countries when it failed to understand the importance of correct public relations counsel
for His Royal Highness.
The public actions of America's
chief executive are, if one chooses to put it that way, stage-managed. But they are chosen to represent and dramatize the
man in his function as representative of the people. A political practice which has its roots in the tendency of the popular
leader to follow oftener than he leads is the technique of the trial balloon which he uses in order to maintain, as he believes,
his contact with the public. The politician, of course, has his ear to the ground. It might be called the clinical ear.
It touches the ground and hears the disturbances of the political universe.
But he often does not know what the disturbances mean, whether they are superficial, or fundamental. So he sends up his
balloon. He may send out an anonymous interview through the press. He then waits for reverberations to come from the public—a
public which expresses itself in mass meetings, or resolutions, or telegrams, or even such obvious manifestations as editorials
in the partisan or nonpartisan press. On the basis of these repercussions he then publicly adopts his original tentative
policy, or rejects it, or modifies it to conform to the sum of public opinion which has reached him. This method is modeled
on the peace feelers which were used during the war to sound out the disposition of the enemy to make peace or to test any
one of a dozen other popular tendencies. It is the method commonly used by a politician before committing himself to legislation
of any kind, and by a government before committing itself on foreign or domestic policies.
It is a method which has little justification. If a politician is a real leader he will
be able, by the skillful use of propaganda, to lead the people, instead of following the people by means of the clumsy instrument
of trial and error.
The propagandist's approach is the
exact opposite of that of the politician just described. The whole basis of successful propaganda is to have an objective
and then to endeavor to arrive at it through an exact knowledge of the public and modifying circumstances to manipulate
and sway that public.
"The function of a statesman,"
says George Bernard Shaw, "is to express the will of the people in the way of a scientist."
The political leader of to-day should be a leader as finely versed in the technique
of propaganda as in political economy and civics. If he remains merely the reflection of the average intelligence of his
community, he might as well go out of politics. If one is dealing with a democracy in which the herd and the group follow
those whom they recognize as leaders, why should not the young men training for leadership be trained in its technique as
well as in its idealism?
"When the interval between
the intellectual classes and the practical classes is too great," says the historian Buckle, "the former will possess
no influence, the latter will reap no benefits."
Propaganda bridges this interval in our modern complex civilization.
Only through the wise use of propaganda will our government, considered as the continuous administrative organ of the people,
be able to maintain that intimate relationship with the public which is necessary in a democracy.
As David Lawrence pointed out in a recent speech, there is need for an intelligent interpretative
bureau for our government in Washington. There is, it is true, a Division of Current Information in the Department of State,
which at first was headed by a trained newspaper man. But later this position began to be filled by men from the diplomatic
service, men who had very little knowledge of the public. While some of these diplomats have done very well, Mr. Lawrence
asserted that in the long run the country would be benefited if the functions of this office were in the hands of a different
type of person.
There should, I believe, be an Assistant
Secretary of State who is familiar with the problem of dispensing information to the press—some one upon whom the
Secretary of State can call for consultation and who has sufficient authority to persuade the Secretary of State to make
public that which, for insufficient reason, is suppressed.
The function of the propagandist is much broader in scope than that of a mere dispenser of information to the press.
The United States Government should create a Secretary of Public Relations as member of the President's Cabinet. The function
of this official should be correctly to interpret America's aims and ideals throughout the world, and to keep the citizens
of this country in touch with governmental activities and the reasons which prompt them. He would, in short, interpret the
people to the government and the government to the people.
Such an official would be neither a propagandist nor a press agent, in the ordinary understanding of those terms. He would
be, rather, a trained technician who would be helpful in analyzing public thought and public trends, in order to keep the
government informed about the public, and the people informed about the government. America's relations with South America
and with Europe would be greatly improved under such circumstances. Ours must be a leadership democracy administered by
the intelligent minority who know how to regiment and guide the masses.
Is this government by propaganda? Call it, if you prefer, government by education. But education, in the academic sense
of the word, is not sufficient. It must be enlightened expert propaganda through the creation of circumstances, through
the high-spotting of significant events, and the dramatization of important issues. The statesman of the future will thus
be enabled to focus the public mind on crucial points of policy, and regiment a vast, heterogeneous mass of voters to clear
understanding and intelligent action.
WOMEN'S ACTIVITIES AND PROPAGANDA
WOMEN in contemporary America have achieved a legal equality with men. This does not
mean that their activities are identical with those of men. Women in the mass still have special interests and activities
in addition to their economic pursuits and vocational interests.
Women's most obvious influence is exerted when they are organized and armed with the weapon of propaganda. So organized
and armed they have made their influence felt on city councils, state legislatures, and national congresses, upon executives,
upon political campaigns and upon public opinion generally, both local and national.
In politics, the American women to-day occupy a much more important position, from the standpoint of their influence, in
their organized groups than from the standpoint of the leadership they have acquired in actual political positions or in
actual office holding. The professional woman politician has had, up to the present, not much influence, nor do women generally
regard her as being the most important element in question. Ma Ferguson, after all, was simply a woman in the home, a catspaw
for a deposed husband; Nellie Ross, the former Governor of Wyoming, is from all accounts hardly a leader of statesmanship
or public opinion.
If the suffrage campaign did nothing
more, it showed the possibilities of propaganda to achieve certain ends. This propaganda to-day is being utilized by women
to achieve their programs in Washington and in the states. In Washington they are organized as the Legislative Committee
of Fourteen Women's Organizations, including the League of Women Voters, the Young Women's Christian Association,
the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, the Federation of Women's Clubs, etc. These organizations map out a legislative
program and then use the modern technique of propaganda to make this legislative program actually pass into the law of the
land. Their accomplishments in the field are various. They can justifiably take the credit for much welfare legislation.
The eight-hour day for women is theirs. Undoubtedly prohibition and its enforcement are theirs, if they can be
considered an accomplishment. So is the Shepard-Towner Bill which stipulates support by the central government of maternity
welfare in the state governments. This bill would not have passed had it not been for the political prescience and sagacity
of women like Mrs. Vanderlip and Mrs. Mitchell.
measures endorsed at the first convention of the National League of Women Voters typify social welfare activities of women's
organizations. These covered such broad interests as child welfare, education, the home and high prices, women in gainful
occupations, public health and morals, independent citizenship for married women, and others.
To propagandize these principles, the National League of Women Voters has published all
types of literature, such as bulletins, calendars, election information, has held a correspondence course on government
and conducted demonstration classes and citizenship schools.
Possibly the effectiveness of women's organizations in American politics to-day is due to two things: first, the training
of a professional class of executive secretaries or legislative secretaries during the suffrage campaigns, where every device
known to the propagandist had to be used to regiment a recalcitrant majority; secondly, the routing over into peacetime
activities of the many prominent women who were in the suffrage campaigns and who also devoted themselves to the important
drives and mass influence movements during the war. Such women as Mrs. Frank Vanderlip, Alice Ames Winter, Mrs. Henry Moskowitz,
Mrs. Florence Kelley, Mrs. John Blair, Mrs. O. H. P. Belmont, Doris Stevens, Alice Paul come to mind.
If I have seemed to concentrate on the accomplishments of women in politics,
it is because they afford a particularly striking example of intelligent use of the new propaganda to secure attention and
acceptance of minority ideas. It is perhaps curiously appropriate that the latest recruits to the political arena should
recognize and make use of the newest weapons of persuasion to offset any lack of experience with what is somewhat euphemistically
termed practical politics. As an example of this new technique: Some years ago, the Consumers' Committee of Women, fighting
the "American valuation" tariff, rented an empty store on Fifty-seventh Street in New York and set up an exhibit
of merchandise tagging each item with the current price and the price it would cost if the tariff went through. Hundreds
of visitors to this shop rallied to the cause of the committee.
But there are also non-political fields in which women can make and have made their influence felt for social ends, and
in which they have utilized the principle of group leadership in attaining the desired objectives.
In the General Federation of Women's Clubs, there are 13,000 clubs. Broadly
classified, they include civic and city clubs, mothers' and homemakers' clubs, cultural clubs devoted to art, music or literature,
business and professional women's clubs, and general women's clubs, which may embrace either civic or community phases,
or combine some of the other activities listed.
club is generally effective on behalf of health education; in furthering appreciation of the fine arts; in sponsoring legislation
that affects the welfare of women and children; in playground development and park improvement; in raising standards of
social or political morality; in homemaking. and home economics, education and the like. In these fields, the woman's club
concerns itself with efforts that are not ordinarily covered by existing agencies, and often both initiates and helps to
further movements for the good of the community.
interested principally in homemaking and the practical arts can sponsor a cooking school for young brides and others. An
example of the keen interest of women in this field of education is the cooking school recently conducted by the New York
Herald Tribune, which held its classes in Carnegie Hall, seating almost 3,000 persons. For the several days of the cooking
school, the hall was filled to capacity, rivaling the drawing power of a McCormack or a Paderewski, and refuting most dramatically
the idea that women in large cities are not interested in housewifery.
A movement for the serving of milk in public schools, or the establishment of a baby health station at the department of
health will be an effort close to the heart of a club devoted to the interest of mothers and child welfare.
A music club can broaden its sphere and be of service to the community by cooperating
with the local radio station in arranging better musical programs. Fighting bad music can be as militant a campaign and
marshal as varied resources as any political battle.
art club can be active in securing loan exhibitions for its city. It can also arrange travelling exhibits of the art work
of its members or show the art work of schools or universities.
A literary club may step out of its charmed circle of lectures and literary lions and take a definite part in the educational
life of the community. It can sponsor, for instance, a competition in the public schools for the best essay on the history
of the city, or on the life of its most famous son.
and above the particular object for which the woman's club may have been constituted, it commonly stands ready to initiate
or help any movement which has for its object a distinct public good in the community. More important, it constitutes an
organized channel through which women can make themselves felt as a definite part of public opinion.
Just as women supplement men in private life, so they will supplement men in
public life by concentrating their organized efforts on those objects which men are likely to ignore. There is a tremendous
field for women as active protagonists of new ideas and new methods of political and social housekeeping. When organized
and conscious of their power to influence their surroundings, women can use their newly acquired freedom in a great many
ways to mold the world into a better place to live in.
PROPAGANDA FOR EDUCATION
EDUCATION is not securing its proper share of public interest. The public school system,
materially and financially, is being adequately supported. There is marked eagerness for a college education, and a vague
aspiration for culture, expressed in innumerable courses and lectures. The public is not cognizant of the real value of education,
and does not realize that education as a social force is not receiving the kind of attention it has the right to expect
in a democracy.
It is felt, for example, that education
is entitled to more space in the newspapers; that well informed discussion of education hardly exists; that unless such
an issue as the Gary School system is created, or outside of an occasional discussion, such as that aroused over Harvard's
decision to establish a school of business, education does not attract the active interest of the public.
There are a number of reasons for this condition. First of all, there is the
fact that the educator has been trained to stimulate to thought the individual students in his classroom, but has not been
trained as an educator at large of the public.
In a democracy
an educator should, in addition to his academic duties, bear a definite and wholesome relation to the general public. This
public does not come within the immediate scope of his academic duties. But in a sense he depends upon it for his living,
for the moral support, and the general cultural tone upon which his work must be based. In the field of education, we find
what we have found in politics and other fields—that the evolution of the practitioner of the profession has not kept
pace with the social evolution around him, and is out of gear with the instruments for the dissemination of ideas which
modern society has developed. If this be true, then the training of the educators in this respect should begin in the normal
schools, with the addition to their curricula of whatever is necessary to broaden their viewpoint. The public cannot understand
unless the teacher understands the relationship between the general public and the academic idea.
The normal school should provide for the training of the educator to make him
realize that his is a twofold job: education as a teacher and education as a propagandist.
A second reason for the present remoteness of education from the thoughts and interests
of the public is to be found in the mental attitude of the pedagogue —whether primary school teacher or college professor—toward
the world outside the school. This is a difficult psychological problem. The teacher finds himself in a world in which
the emphasis is put on those objective goals and those objective attainments which are prized by our American society. He
himself is but moderately or poorly paid. Judging himself by the standards in common acceptance, he cannot but feel a sense
of inferiority because he finds himself continually being compared, in the minds of his own pupils, with the successful
business man and the successful leader in the outside world. Thus the educator becomes repressed and suppressed in our
civilization. As things stand, this condition cannot be changed from the outside unless the general public alters its standards
of achievement, which it is not likely to do soon.
it can be changed by the teaching profession itself, if it becomes conscious not only of its individualistic relation to
the pupil, but also of its social relation to the general public. The teaching profession, as such, has the right to carry
on a very definite propaganda with a view to enlightening the public and asserting its intimate relation to the society
which it serves. In addition to conducting a propaganda on behalf of its individual members, education must also raise
the general appreciation of the teaching profession. Unless the profession can raise itself by its own bootstraps, it will
fast lose the power of recruiting outstanding talent for itself.
Propaganda cannot change all that is at present unsatisfactory in the educational situation. There are factors, such as
low pay and the lack of adequate provision for superannuated teachers, which definitely affect the status of the profession.
It is possible, by means of an intelligent appeal predicated upon the actual present composition of the public mind, to
modify the general attitude toward the teaching profession. Such a changed attitude will begin by expressing itself in an
insistence on the idea of more adequate salaries for the profession.
There are various ways in which academic organizations in America handle their financial problems. One type of college or
university depends, for its monetary support, upon grants from the state legislatures. Another depends upon private endowment.
There are other types of educational institutions, such as the sectarian, but the two chief types include by far the greater
number of our institutions of higher learning.
university is supported by grants from the people of the state, voted by the state legislature. In theory, the degree of
support which the university receives is dependent upon the degree of acceptance accorded it by the voters. The state university
prospers according to the extent to which it can sell itself to the people of the state.
The state university is therefore in an unfortunate position unless its president happens
to be a man of outstanding merit as a propagandist and a dramatizer of educational issues. Yet if this is the case—if
the university shapes its whole policy toward gaining the support of the state legislature—its educational function
may suffer. It may be tempted to base its whole appeal to the public on its public service, real or supposed, and permit
the education of its individual students to take care of itself. It may attempt to educate the people of the state at the
expense of its own pupils. This may generate a number of evils, to the extent of making the university a political instrument,
a mere tool of the political group in power. If the president dominates both the public and the professional politician,
this may lead to a situation in which the personality of the president outweighs the true function of the institution.
The endowed college or university has a problem quite as
perplexing. The endowed college is dependent upon the support, usually, of key men in industry whose social and economic
objectives are concrete and limited, and therefore often at variance with the pursuit of abstract knowledge. The successful
business man criticizes the great universities for being too academic, but seldom for being too practical. One might imagine
that the key men who support our universities would like them to specialize in schools of applied science, of practical
salesmanship or of industrial efficiency. And it may well be, in many instances, that the demands which the potential endowers
of our universities make upon these institutions are flatly in contradiction to the interests of scholarship and general
We have, therefore, the anomalous situation of
the college seeking to carry on a propaganda in favor of scholarship among people who are quite out of sympathy with the
aims to which they are asked to subscribe their money. Men who, by the commonly accepted standards, are failures or very
moderate successes in our American world (the pedagogues) seek to convince the outstanding successes (the business men)
that they should give their money to ideals which they do not pursue. Men who, through a sense of inferiority, despise money,
seek to win the good will of men who love money.
possible that the future status of the endowed college will depend upon a balancing of these forces, both the academic and
the endowed elements obtaining in effect due consideration.
The college must win public support. If the potential donor is apathetic, enthusiastic public approval must be obtained to
convince him. If he seeks unduly to influence the educational policy of the institution, public opinion must support the
college in the continuance of its proper functions. If either factor dominates unduly, we are likely to find a demagoguery
or a snobbishness aiming to please one group or the other.
There is still another potential solution of the problem. It is possible that through an educational propaganda aiming to
develop greater social consciousness on the part of the people of the country, there may be awakened in the minds of men
of affairs, as a class, social consciousness which will produce more minds of the type of Julius Rosenwald, V. Everitt Macy,
John D. Rockefeller, Jr., the late Willard Straight.
colleges have already developed intelligent propaganda in order to bring them into active and continuous relation with the
general public. A definite technique has been developed in their relation to the community in the form of college news bureaus.
These bureaus have formed an intercollegiate association whose members meet once a year to discuss their problems. These
problems include the education of the alumnus and his effect upon the general public and upon specific groups, the education
of the future student to the choice of the particular college, the maintenance of an esprit de corps so that the athletic
prowess of the college will not be placed first, the development of some familiarity with the research work done in the
college in order to attract the attention of those who may be able to lend aid, the development of an understanding of the
aims and the work of the institution in order to attract special endowments for specified purposes.
Some seventy-five of these bureaus are now affiliated with the American Association
of College News Bureaus, including those of Yale, Wellesley, Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin, Western Reserve, Tufts and
California. A bi-monthly news letter is published, bringing to members the news of their profession. The Association endeavors
to uphold the ethical standards of the profession and aims to work in harmony with the press.
The National Education Association and other societies are carrying on a definite propaganda
to promote the larger purposes of educational endeavor. One of the aims of such propaganda is of course improvement in the
prestige and material position of the teachers themselves. An occasional McAndrew case calls the attention of the public
to the fact that in some schools the teacher is far from enjoying full academic freedom, while in certain communities the
choice of teachers is based upon political or sectarian considerations rather than upon real ability. If such issues were
made, by means of propaganda, to become a matter of public concern on a truly national scale, there would doubtless be a
general tendency to improvement.
The concrete problems
of colleges are more varied and puzzling than one might suppose. The pharmaceutical college of a university is concerned
because the drug store is no longer merely a drug store, but primarily a soda fountain, a lunch counter, a bookshop, a retailer
of all sorts of general merchandise from society stationery to spare radio parts. The college realizes the economic utility
of the lunch counter feature to the practicing druggist, yet it feels that the ancient and honorable art of compounding
specifics is being degraded.
Cornell University discovers
that endowments are rare. Why? Because the people think that the University is a state institution and therefore publicly
Many of our leading universities rightly feel
that the results of their scholarly researches should not only be presented to libraries and learned publications, but should
also, where practicable and useful, be given to the public in the dramatic form which the public can understand. Harvard
is but one example.
"Not long ago," says Charles
A. Merrill in Personality, "a certain Harvard professor vaulted into the newspaper headlines. There were several days
when one could hardly pick up a paper in any of the larger cities without finding his name bracketed with his achievement.
"The professor, who was back from a trip to Yucatan
in the interests of science, had solved the mystery of the Venus calendar of the ancient Mayas. He had discovered the key
to the puzzle of how the Mayas kept tab on the flight of time. Checking the Mayan record of celestial events against the
known astronomical facts, he had found a perfect correlation between the time count of these Central American Indians and
the true positions of the planet Venus in the sixth century B.C. A civilization which flour129 Propaganda ished in the
Western Hemisphere twenty-five centuries ago was demonstrated to have attained heights hitherto unappreciated by the modern
"How the professor's discovery happened to
be chronicled in the popular press is, also, in retrospect, a matter of interest. ... If left to his own devices, he might
never have appeared in print, except perhaps in some technical publication, and his remarks there would have been no more
intelligible to the average man or woman than if they had been inscribed in Mayan hieroglyphics.
"Popularization of this message from antiquity was due to the initiative of a young
man named James W. D. Seymour. . . .
"It may surprise
and shock some people," Mr. Merrill adds, "to be told that the oldest and most dignified seats of learning in
America now hire press agents, just as railroad companies, fraternal organizations, moving picture producers and political
parties retain them. It is nevertheless a fact. . . .
". . . there is hardly a college or university in the country which does not, with the approval of the governing body
and the faculty, maintain a publicity office, with a director and a staff of assistants, for the purpose of establishing
friendly relations with the newspapers, and through the newspapers, with the public. . .
"This enterprise breaks sharply with tradition. In the older seats of learning
it is a recent innovation. It violates the fundamental article in the creed of the old academic societies. Cloistered seclusion
used to be considered the first essential of scholarship. The college was anxious to preserve its aloofness from the world.
"The colleges used to resent outside interest
in their affairs. They might, somewhat reluctantly and contemptuously, admit reporters to their Commencement Day exercises,
but no further would they go. . . .
"To-day, if a
newspaper reporter wants to interview a Harvard professor, he has merely to telephone the Secretary for Information to the
University. Officially, Harvard still shies away from the title 'Director of Publicity.' Informally, however, the secretary
with the long title is the publicity man. He is an important official to-day at Harvard."
It may be a new idea that the president of a university will concern himself with the kind
of mental picture his institution produces on the public mind. Yet it is part of the president's work to see that his university
takes its proper place in the community and therefore also in the community mind, and produces the results desired, both
in a cultural and in a financial sense.
If his institution
does not produce the mental picture which it should, one of two things may be wrong: Either the media of communication
with the public may be wrong or unbalanced; or his institution may be at fault. The public is getting an oblique impression
of the university, in which case the impression should be modified; or it may be that the public is getting a correct impression,
in which case, very possibly, the work of the university itself should be modified. For both possibilities lie within the
province of the public relations counsel.
recently instituted a Casa Italiana, which was solemnly inaugurated in the presence of representatives of the Italian government,
to emphasize its high standing in Latin studies and the Romance languages. Years ago Harvard founded the Germanic Museum,
which was ceremoniously opened by Prince Henry of Prussia.
Many colleges maintain extension courses which bring their work to the knowledge of a broad public. It is of course proper
that such courses should be made known to the general public. But, to take another example, if they have been badly planned,
from the point of view of public relations, if they are unduly scholastic and detached, their effect may be the opposite
of favorable. In such a case, it is not the work of the public relations counsel to urge that the courses be made better
known, but to urge that they first be modified to conform to the impression which the college wishes to create, where that
is compatible with the university's scholastic ideals.
Again, it may be the general opinion that the work of a certain institution is 80 per cent postgraduate research, an opinion
which may tend to alienate public interest. This opinion may be true or it may be false. If it is false, it should be corrected
by high-spotting undergraduate activities.
If, on the other
hand, it is true that 80 per cent of the work is postgraduate research, the most should be made of that fact. It should
be the concern of the president to make known the discoveries which are of possible public interest. A university expedition
into Biblical lands may be uninteresting as a purely scholastic undertaking, but if it contributes light on some Biblical
assertion it will immediately arouse the interest of large masses of the population. The zoological department may be hunting
for some strange bacillus which has no known relation to any human disease, but the fact that it is chasing bacilli is in
itself capable of dramatic presentation to the public.
Many universities now gladly lend members of their faculties to assist in investigations of public interest. Thus Cornell
lent Professor Wilcox to aid the government in the preparation of the national census. Professor Irving Fisher of Yale has
been called in to advise on currency matters.
In the ethical
sense, propaganda bears the same relation to education as to business or politics. It may be abused. It may be used to
overadvertise an institution and to create in the public mind artificial values. There can be no absolute guarantee against
PROPAGANDA IN SOCIAL SERVICE
THE public relations counsel is necessary to social work. And since social service, by its
very nature, can continue only by means of the voluntary support of the wealthy, it is obliged to use propaganda continually.
The leaders in social service were among the first consciously to utilize propaganda in its modern sense.
The great enemy of any attempt to change men's habits is inertia. Civilization
is limited by inertia.
Our attitude toward social relations,
toward economics, toward national and international politics, continues past attitudes and strengthens them under the force
of tradition. Comstock drops his mantle of proselytizing morality on the willing shoulders of a Sumner; Penrose drops his
mantle on Butler; Carnegie his on Schwab, and so ad infinitum. Opposing this traditional acceptance of existing ideas is
an active public opinion that has been directed consciously into movements against inertia. Public opinion was made or
changed formerly by tribal chiefs, by kings, by religious leaders. To-day the privilege of attempting to sway public opinion
is every one's. It is one of the manifestations of democracy that any one may try to convince others and to assume leadership
on behalf of his own thesis.
New ideas, new precedents,
are continually striving for a place in the scheme of things.
The social settlement, the organized campaigns against tuberculosis and cancer, the various research activities aiming directly
at the elimination of social diseases and maladjustments—a multitude of altruistic activities which could be catalogued
only in a book of many pages—have need of knowledge of the public mind and mass psychology if they are to achieve
their aims. The literature on social service publicity is so extensive, and the underlying principles so fundamental, that
only one example is necessary here to illustrate the technique of social service propaganda.
A social service organization undertook to fight lynching, Jim Crowism and the civil discriminations
against the Negro below the Mason and Dixon line.
National Association for the Advancement of the Colored People had the fight in hand. As a matter of technique they decided
to dramatize the year's campaign in an annual convention which would concentrate attention on the problem.
Should it be held in the North, South, West or East? Since the purpose was
to affect the entire country, the association was advised to hold it in the South.
For, said the propagandist, a point of view on a southern question, emanating from a southern center, would have greater
authority than the same point of view issuing from any other locality, particularly when that point of view was at odds with
the traditional southern point of view. Atlanta was chosen.
The third step was to surround the conference with people who were stereotypes for ideas that carried weight all over the
country. The support of leaders of diversified groups was sought. Telegrams and letters were dispatched to leaders of religious,
political, social and educational groups, asking for their point of view on the purpose of the conference. But in addition
to these group leaders of national standing it was particularly important from the technical standpoint to secure the opinions
of group leaders of the South, even from Atlanta itself, to emphasize the purposes of the conference to the entire public.
There was one group in Atlanta which could be approached. A group of ministers had been bold enough to come out for a greater
interracial amity. This group was approached and agreed to cooperate in the conference.
The event ran off as scheduled. The program itself followed the general scheme. Negroes
and white men from the South, on the same platform, expressed the same point of view.
A dramatic element was spot-lighted here and there. A national leader from Massachusetts agreed in principle and in practice
with a Baptist preacher from the South.
If the radio had
been in effect, the whole country might have heard and been moved by the speeches and the principles expressed.
But the public read the words and the ideas in the press of the country. For
the event had been created of such important component parts as to awaken interest throughout the country and to gain support
for its ideas even in the South.
The editorials in the
southern press, reflecting the public opinion of their communities, showed that the subject had become one of interest to
the editors because of the participation by southern leaders.
The event naturally gave the Association itself substantial weapons with which to appeal to an increasingly wider circle.
Further publicity was attained by mailing reports, letters, and other propaganda to selected groups of the public.
As for the practical results, the immediate one was a change in the minds of
many southern editors who realized that the question at issue was not only an emotional one, but also a discussable one;
and this point of view was immediately reflected to their readers. Further results are hard to measure with a slide-rule.
The conference had its definite effect in building up the racial consciousness and solidarity of the Negroes. The decline
in lynching is very probably a result of this and other efforts of the Association.
Many churches have made paid advertising and organized propaganda part of their regular activities. They have developed
church advertising committees, which make use of the newspaper and the billboard, as well as of the pamphlet. Many denominations
maintain their own periodicals. The Methodist Board of Publication and Information systematically gives announcements and
releases to the press and the magazines.
But in a broader
sense the very activities of social service are propaganda activities. A campaign for the preservation of the teeth seeks
to alter people's habits in the direction of more frequent brushing of teeth. A campaign for better parks seeks to alter
people's opinion in regard to the desirability of taxing themselves for the purchase of park facilities. A campaign against
tuberculosis is an attempt to convince everybody that tuberculosis can be cured, that persons with certain symptoms should
immediately go to the doctor, and the like. A campaign to lower the infant mortality rate is an effort to alter the habits
of mothers in regard to feeding, bathing and caring for their babies. Social service, in fact, is identical with propaganda
in many cases.
Even those aspects of social service which
are governmental and administrative, rather than charitable and spontaneous, depend on wise propaganda for their effectiveness.
Professor Harry Elmer Barnes, in his book, "The Evolution of Modern Penology in Pennsylvania," states that improvements
in penological administration in that state are hampered by political influences. The legislature must be persuaded to permit
the utilization of the best methods of scientific penology, and for this there is necessary the development of an enlightened
public opinion. "Until such a situation has been brought about," Mr. Barnes states, "progress in penology
is doomed to be sporadic, local, and generally ineffective. The solution of prison problems, then, seems to be fundamentally
a problem of conscientious and scientific publicity."
Social progress is simply the progressive education and enlightenment of the public mind in regard to its immediate and
distant social problems.
ART AND SCIENCE
IN the education of the American public toward greater art appreciation, propaganda plays an important part. When art galleries
seek to launch the canvases of an artist they should create public acceptance for his works. To increase public appreciation
a deliberate propagandizing effort must be made.
as in politics the minority rules, but it can rule only by going out to meet the public on its own ground, by understanding
the anatomy of public opinion and utilizing it.
and commercial art, propaganda makes greater opportunities for the artist than ever before. This arises from the fact that
mass production reaches an impasse when it competes on a price basis only. It must, therefore, in a large number of fields
create a field of competition based on esthetic values. Business of many types capitalizes the esthetic sense to increase
markets and profits. Which is only another way of saying that the artist has the opportunity of collaborating with industry
in such a way as to improve the public taste, injecting beautiful instead of ugly motifs into the articles of common use,
and, furthermore, securing recognition and money for himself.
Propaganda can play a part in pointing out what is and what is not beautiful, and business can definitely help in this way
to raise the level of American culture. In this process propaganda will naturally make use of the authority of group leaders
whose taste and opinion are recognized.
The public must
be interested by means of associational values and dramatic incidents. New inspiration, which to the artist may be a very
technical and abstract kind of beauty, must be made vital to the public by association with values which it recognizes
and responds to.
For instance, in the manufacture of American
silk, markets are developed by going to Paris for inspiration. Paris can give American silk a stamp of authority which
will aid it to achieve definite position in the United States.
The following clipping from the New York Times of February 16, 1925, tells the story from an actual incident of this sort:
"Copyright, 1925, by THE NEW YORK TIMES COMPANY—Special Cable
to THE NEW YORK TIMES.
"PARIS, Feb. 15.—For the first time
in history, American art materials are to be exhibited in the Decorative Arts Section of the Louvre Museum.
"The exposition opening on May 26th with the Minister of Fine Arts, Paul
Leon, acting as patron, will include silks from Cheney Brothers, South Manchester and New York, the designs of which were
based on the inspiration of Edgar Brandt, famous French iron worker, the modern Bellini, who makes wonderful art works from
"M. Brandt designed and made
the monumental iron doors of the Verdun war memorial. He has been asked to assist and participate in this exposition, which
will show France the accomplishments of American industrial art.
"Thirty designs inspired by Edgar Brandt's work are embodied in 2,500 yards of printed silks, tinsels and cut velvets
in a hundred colors. . . .
'prints ferronnieres' are the first textiles to show the influence of the modern master, M. Brandt. The silken fabrics possess
a striking composition, showing characteristic Brandt motifs which were embodied in the tracery of large designs by the
Cheney artists who succeeded in translating the iron into silk, a task which might appear almost impossible. The strength
and brilliancy of the original design is enhanced by the beauty and warmth of color."
The result of this ceremony was that prominent department stores in New York, Chicago
and other cities asked to have this exhibition. They tried to mold the public taste in conformity with the idea which had
the approval of Paris. The silks of Cheney Brothers—a commercial product produced in quantity—gained a place
in public esteem by being associated with the work of a recognized artist and with a great art museum.
The same can be said of almost any commercial product susceptible of beautiful
design. There are few products in daily use, whether furniture, clothes, lamps, posters, commercial labels, book jackets,
pocketbooks or bathtubs which are not subject to the laws of good taste.
In America, whole departments of production are being changed through propaganda to fill an economic as well as an esthetic
need. Manufacture is being modified to conform to the economic need to satisfy the public demand for more beauty. A piano
manufacturer recently engaged artists to design modernist pianos. This was not done because there existed a widespread demand
for modernist pianos. Indeed, the manufacturer probably expected to sell few. But in order to draw attention to pianos
one must have something more than a piano. People at tea parties will not talk about pianos; but they may talk about
the new modernist piano.
When Secretary Hoover, three years
ago, was asked to appoint a commission to the Paris Exposition of Decorative Arts, he did so. As Associate Commissioner
I assisted in the organizing of the group of important business leaders in the industrial art field who went to Paris as
delegates to visit and report on the Exposition. The propaganda carried on for the aims and purposes of the Commission
undoubtedly had a widespread effect on the attitude of Americans towards art in industry; it was only a few years later
that the modern art movement penetrated all fields of industry.
Department stores took it up. R. H. Macy & Company held an Art-in-Trades Exposition, in which the Metropolitan Museum
of Art collaborated as adviser. Lord & Taylor sponsored a Modern Arts Exposition, with foreign exhibitors. These stores,
coming closely in touch with the life of the people, performed a propagandizing function in bringing to the people the
best in art as it related to these industries. The Museum at the same time was alive to the importance of making contact
with the public mind, by utilizing the department store to increase art appreciation.
Of all art institutions the museum suffers most from the lack of effective propaganda. Most
present-day museums have the reputation of being morgues or sanctuaries, whereas they should be leaders and
teachers in the esthetic life of the community. They have little vital relation to life.
The treasures of beauty in a museum need to be interpreted to the public, and this requires
a propagandist. The housewife in a Bronx apartment doubtless feels little interest in an ancient Greek vase in the Metropolitan
Museum. Yet an artist working with a pottery firm may adapt the design of this vase to a set of china and this china, priced
low through quantity production, may find its way to that Bronx apartment, developing unconsciously, through its fine line
and color, an appreciation of beauty.
Some American museums
feel this responsibility. The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York rightly prides itself on its million and a quarter
of visitors in the year 1926; on its efforts to dramatize and make visual the civilizations which its various departments
reveal; on its special lectures, its story hours, its loan collections of prints and photographs and lantern slides, its
facilities offered to commercial firms in the field of applied art, on the outside lecturers who are invited to lecture in
its auditorium and on the lectures given by its staff to outside organizations} and on the free chamber concerts given in
the museum under the direction of David Mannes, which tend to dramatize the museum as a home of beauty. Yet that is not
the whole of the problem.
It is not merely a question of
making people come to the museum. It is also a question of making the museum, and the beauty which it houses, go to the
The museum's accomplishments should not be evaluated
merely in terms of the number of visitors. Its function is not merely to receive visitors, but to project iself and what
it stands for in the community which it serves.
can stand in its community for a definite esthetic standard which can, by the help of intelligent propaganda, permeate the
daily lives of all its neighbors. Why should not a museum establish a museum council of art, to establish standards in
home decoration, in architecture, and in commercial production? or a research board for applied arts? Why should not the
museum, instead of merely preserving the art treasures which it possesses, quicken their meaning in terms which the general
A recent annual report of an art museum
in one of the large cities of the United States, says:
"An underlying characteristic of an Art Museum like ours must be its attitude of conservatism, for after all its first
duty is to treasure the great achievements of men in the arts and sciences."
Is that true? Is not another important duty to interpret the models of beauty which
If the duty of the museum is to be active
it must study how best to make its message intelligible to the community which it serves. It must boldly assume esthetic
As in art, so in science, both pure and applied.
Pure science was once guarded and fostered by learned societies and scientific associations. Now pure science finds support
and encouragement also in industry. Many of the laboratories in which abstract research is being pursued are now connected
with some large corporation, which is quite willing to devote hundreds of thousands of dollars to scientific study, for
the sake of one golden invention or discovery which may emerge from it.
Big business of course gains heavily when the invention emerges. But at that very moment it assumes the responsibility of
placing the new invention at the service of the public. It assumes also the responsibility of interpreting its meaning to
The industrial interests can furnish to the
schools, the colleges and the postgraduate university courses the exact truth concerning the scientific progress of our
age. They not only can do so; they are under obligation to do so. Propaganda as an instrument of commercial competition
has opened opportunities to the inventor and given great stimulus to the research scientist. In the last five or ten years,
the successes of some of the larger corporations have been so outstanding that the whole field of science has received
a tremendous impetus. The American Telephone and Telegraph Company, the Western Electric Company, the General Electric
Company, the Westinghouse Electric Company and others have realized the importance of scientific research. They have also
understood that their ideas must be made intelligible to the public to be fully successful. Television, broadcasting, loud
speakers are utilized as propaganda aids.
in marketing new inventions. Propaganda, by repeatedly interpreting new scientific ideas and inventions to the public, has
made the public more receptive. Propaganda is accustoming the public to change and progress.
THE MECHANICS OF PROPAGANDA
THE media by which special pleaders transmit their messages to the public through propaganda
include all the means by which people to-day transmit their ideas to one another. There is no means of human communication
which may not also be a means of deliberate propaganda, because propaganda is simply the establishing of reciprocal understanding
between an individual and a group.
The important point
to the propagandist is that the relative value of the various instruments of propaganda, and their relation to the masses,
are constantly changing. If he is to get full reach for his message he must take advantage of these shifts of value the
instant they occur. Fifty years ago, the public meeting was a propaganda instrument par excellence. To-day it is difficult
to get more than a handful of people to attend a public meeting unless extraordinary attractions are part of the program.
The automobile takes them away from home, the radio keeps them in the home, the successive daily editions of the newspaper
bring information to them in office or subway, and also they are sick of the ballyhoo of the rally.
Instead there are numerous other media of communication, some new, others old
but so transformed that they have become virtually new. The newspaper, of course, remains always a primary medium for the
transmission of opinions and ideas—in other words, for propaganda.
It was not many years ago that newspaper editors resented what they called "the use of the news columns for propaganda
purposes." Some editors would even kill a good story if they imagined its publication might benefit any one. This point
of view is now largely abandoned. To-day the leading editorial offices take the view that the real criterion governing
the publication or non-publication of matter which comes to the desk is its news value. The newspaper cannot assume, nor
is it its function to assume, the responsibility of guaranteeing that what it publishes will not work out to somebody's
interest. There is hardly a single item in any daily paper, the publication of which does not, or might not, profit or
injure somebody. That is the nature of news. What the newspaper does strive for is that the news which it publishes shall
be accurate, and (since it must select from the mass of news material available) that it shall be of interest and importance
to large groups of its readers.
In its editorial columns
the newspaper is a personality, commenting upon things and events from its individual point of view. But in its news columns
the typical modern American newspaper attempts to reproduce, with due regard to news interest, the outstanding events and
opinions of the day.
It does not ask whether a given item
is propaganda or not. What is important is that it be news. And in the selection of news the editor is usually entirely
independent. In the New York Times—to take an outstanding example—news is printed because of its news value
and for no other reason. The Times editors determine with complete independence what is and what is not news. They brook
no censorship. They are not influenced by any external pressure nor swayed by any values of expediency or opportunism.
The conscientious editor on every newspaper realizes that his obligation to the public is news. The fact of its accomplishment
makes it news.
If the public relations counsel can breathe
the breath of life into an idea and make it take its place among other ideas and events, it will receive the public attention
it merits. There can be no question of his "contaminating news at its source." He creates some of the day's events,
which must compete in the editorial office with other events. Often the events which he creates may be specially acceptable
to a newspaper's public and he may create them with that public in mind.
If important things of life to-day consist of transatlantic radiophone talks arranged by commercial telephone companies;
if they consist of inventions that will be commercially advantageous to the men who market them; if they consist of Henry
Fords with epoch-making cars—then all this is news. The so-called flow of propaganda into the newspaper offices of
the country may, simply at the editor's discretion, find its way to the waste basket.
The source of the news offered to the editor should always be clearly stated and the facts accurately presented.
The situation of the magazines at the present moment, from the propagandist's
point of view, is different from that of the daily newspapers. The average magazine assumes no obligation, as the newspaper
does, to reflect the current news. It selects its material deliberately, in accordance with a continuous policy. It is not,
like the newspaper, an organ of public opinion, but tends rather to become a propagandist organ, propagandizing for a particular
idea, whether it be good housekeeping, or smart apparel, or beauty in home decoration, or debunking public opinion, or general
enlightenment or liberalism or amusement. One magazine may aim to sell health; another, English gardens; another, fashionable
men's wear; another, Nietzschean philosophy.
In all departments
in which the various magazines specialize, the public relations counsel may play an important part. For he may, because
of his client's interest, assist them to create the events which further their propaganda. A bank, in order
to emphasize the importance of its women's department, may arrange to supply a leading women's magazine with a series of
articles and advice on investments written by the woman expert in charge of this department. The women's magazine in turn
will utilize this new feature as a means of building additional prestige and circulation.
The lecture, once a powerful means of influencing public opinion, has changed its value.
The lecture itself may be only a symbol, a ceremony; its importance, for propaganda purposes, lies in the fact that it
was delivered. Professor So-and-So, expounding an epoch-making invention, may speak to five hundred persons, or only fifty.
His lecture, if it is important, will be broadcast; reports of it will appear in the newspapers; discussion will be stimulated.
The real value of the lecture, from the propaganda point of view, is in its repercussion to the general public.
The radio is at present one of the most important tools of the propagandist.
Its future development is uncertain.
It may compete with
the newspaper as an advertising medium. Its ability to reach millions of persons simultaneously naturally appeals to the
advertiser. And since the average advertiser has a limited appropriation for advertising, money spent on the radio will
tend to be withdrawn from the newspaper.
To what extent
is the publisher alive to this new phenomenon? It is bound to come close to American journalism and publishing. Newspapers
have recognized the advertising potentialities of the companies that manufacture radio apparatus, and of radio stores,
large and small; and newspapers have accorded to the radio in their news and feature columns an importance relative to the
increasing attention given by the public to radio. At the same time, certain newspapers have bought radio stations and
linked them up with their news and entertainment distribution facilities, supplying these two features over the air to the
It is possible that newspaper chains will sell
schedules of advertising space on the air and on paper. Newspaper chains will possibly contract with advertisers for circulation
on paper and over the air. There are, at present, publishers who sell space in the air and in their columns, but they regard
the two as separate ventures.
Large groups, political,
racial, sectarian, economic or professional, are tending to control stations to propagandize their points of view. Or is
it conceivable that America may adopt the English licensing system under which the listener, instead of the advertiser,
Whether the present system is changed, the advertiser—and
propagandist—must necessarily adapt himself to it. Whether, in the future, air space will be sold openly as such,
or whether the message will reach the public in the form of straight entertainment and news, or as special programs for particular
groups, the propagandist must be prepared to meet the conditions and utilize them.
The American motion picture is the greatest unconscious carrier of propaganda in the world to-day. It is a great distributor
for ideas and opinions.
The motion picture can standardize
the ideas and habits of a nation. Because pictures are made to meet market demands, they reflect, emphasize and even exaggerate
broad popular tendencies, rather than stimulate new ideas and opinions. The motion picture avails itself only of ideas and
facts which are in vogue. As the newspaper seeks to purvey news, it seeks to purvey entertainment.
Another instrument of propaganda is the personality. Has the device of the exploited
personality been pushed too far? President Coolidge photographed on his vacation in full Indian regalia in company with
full-blooded chiefs, was the climax of a greatly over-reported vacation. Obviously a public personality can be made absurd
by misuse of the very mechanism which helped create it.
Yet the vivid dramatization of personality will always remain one of the functions of the public relations counsel. The
public instinctively demands a personality to typify a conspicuous corporation or enterprise.
There is a story that a great financier discharged a partner because he had divorced his
"But what," asked the partner, "have
my private affairs to do with the banking business?"
"If you are not capable of managing your own wife," was the reply, "the people will certainly believe that
you are not capable of managing their money."
propagandist must treat personality as he would treat any other objective fact within his province.
A personality may create circumstances, as Lindbergh created good will between
the United States and Mexico. Events may create a personality, as the Cuban War created the political figure of Roosevelt.
It is often difficult to say which creates the other. Once a public figure has decided what ends he wishes to achieve, he
must regard himself objectively and present an outward picture of himself which is consistent with his real character and
There are a multitude of other avenues of approach
to the public mind, some old, some new as television. No attempt will be made to discuss each one separately. The school
may disseminate information concerning scientific facts. The fact that a commercial concern may eventually profit from a
widespread understanding of its activities because of this does not condemn the dissemination of such information, provided
that the subject merits study on the part of the students. If a baking corporation contributes pictures and charts to a
school, to show how bread is made, these propaganda activities, if they are accurate and candid, are in no way reprehensible,
provided the school authorities accept or reject such offers carefully on their educational merits.
It may be that a new product will be announced to the public by means of a
motion picture of a parade taking place a thousand miles away. Or the manufacturer of a new jitney airplane may personally
appear and speak in a million homes through radio and television. The man who would most effectively transmit his message
to the public must be alert to make use of all the means of propaganda.
Undoubtedly the public is becoming aware of the methods which are being used to mold its opinions and habits. If the public
is better informed about the processes of its own life, it will be so much the more receptive to reasonable appeals to its
own interests. No matter how sophisticated, how cynical the public may become about publicity methods, it must respond to
the basic appeals, because it will always need food, crave amusement, long for beauty, respond to leadership.
If the public becomes more intelligent in its commercial demands, commercial
firms will meet the new standards. If it becomes weary of the old methods used to persuade it to accept a given idea or
commodity, its leaders will present their appeals more intelligently.
Propaganda will never die out. Intelligent men must realize that propaganda is the modern instrument by which they can fight
for productive ends and help to bring order out of chaos.